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Ultrasound Elastography for Biomedical Applications and Medicine

Ultrasound Elastography for Biomedical Applications and Medicine

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Ultrasound Elastography for Biomedical Applications and Medicine

Ivan Z. Nenadic, Matthew W. Urban, James F. Greenleaf, Mayo Clinic Ultrasound Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, USA

Jean-Luc Gennisson, Miguel Bernal, Mickael Tanter, Institut Langevin – Ondes et Images, ESPCI ParisTech CNRS, France

Covers all major developments and techniques of Ultrasound Elastography and biomedical applications

The field of ultrasound elastography has developed various techniques with the potential to diagnose and track the progression of diseases such as breast and thyroid cancer, liver and kidney fibrosis, congestive heart failure, and atherosclerosis. Having emerged in the last decade, ultrasound elastography is a medical imaging modality that can noninvasively measure and map the elastic and viscous properties of soft tissues.

Ultrasound Elastography for Biomedical Applications and Medicine covers the basic physics of ultrasound wave propagation and the interaction of ultrasound with various media. The book introduces tissue elastography, covers the history of the field, details the various methods that have been developed by research groups across the world, and describes its novel applications, particularly in shear wave elastography.

Key features:

  • Covers all major developments and techniques of ultrasound elastography and biomedical applications.
  • Contributions from the pioneers of the field secure the most complete coverage of ultrasound elastography available.

The book is essential reading for researchers and engineers working in ultrasound and elastography, as well as biomedical engineering students and those working in the field of biomechanics.

List of Contributors xix

Section I Introduction 1

1 Editors’ Introduction 3
Ivan Nenadic, Matthew Urban, James Greenleaf, Jean-Luc Gennisson,Miguel Bernal, and Mickael Tanter

References 5

Section II Fundamentals of Ultrasound Elastography 7

2 Theory of Ultrasound Physics and Imaging 9
Roberto Lavarello andMichael L. Oelze

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 Modeling the Response of the Source to Stimuli [h(t)] 10

2.3 Modeling the Fields from Sources [p(t, x)] 12

2.4 Modeling an Ultrasonic Scattered Field [s(t, x)] 15

2.5 Modeling the Bulk Properties of the Medium [a(t, x)] 19

2.6 Processing Approaches Derived from the Physics of Ultrasound [Ω] 21

2.7 Conclusions 26

References 27

3 Elastography and the Continuum of Tissue Response 29
Kevin J. Parker

3.1 Introduction 29

3.2 Some Classical Solutions 31

3.3 The Continuum Approach 32

3.4 Conclusion 33

Acknowledgments 33

References 34

4 Ultrasonic Methods for Assessment of TissueMotion in Elastography 35
Jingfeng Jiang and Bo Peng

4.1 Introduction 35

4.2 Basic Concepts and their Relevance in Tissue Motion Tracking 36

4.3 Tracking Tissue Motion through Frequency-domain Methods 37

4.4 Maximum Likelihood (ML) Time-domain Correlation-based Methods 39

4.5 Tracking Tissue Motion through Combining Time-domain and Frequency-domain Information 44

4.6 Time-domain Maximum A Posterior (MAP) Speckle Tracking Methods 45

4.7 Optical Flow-based Tissue Motion Tracking 53

4.8 Deformable Mesh-based Motion-tracking Methods 55

4.9 Future Outlook 57

4.10 Conclusions 63

Acknowledgments 63

Acronyms 63

Additional Nomenclature of Definitions and Acronyms 64

References 65

Section III Theory of Mechanical Properties of Tissue 71

5 Continuum Mechanics Tensor Calculus and Solutions toWave Equations 73
Luiz Vasconcelos, Jean-Luc Gennisson, and Ivan Nenadic

5.1 Introduction 73

5.2 Mathematical Basis and Notation 73

5.3 Solutions toWave Equations 75

References 81

6 TransverseWave Propagation in Anisotropic Media 82
Jean-Luc Gennisson

6.1 Introduction 82

6.2 Theoretical Considerations from General to Transverse Isotropic Models for Soft Tissues 82

6.3 Experimental Assessment of Anisotropic Ratio by ShearWave Elastography 87

6.4 Conclusion 88

References 88

7 TransverseWave Propagation in Bounded Media 90
Javier Brum

7.1 Introduction 90

7.2 TransverseWave Propagation in Isotropic Elastic Plates 90

7.3 Plate in Vacuum: LambWaves 93

7.4 Viscoelastic Plate in Liquid: Leaky LambWaves 96

7.5 Isotropic Plate Embedded Between Two Semi-infinite Elastic Solids 99

7.6 TransverseWave Propagation in Anisotropic Viscoelastic Plates Surrounded by Non-viscous Fluid 100

7.7 Conclusions 103

Acknowledgments 103

References 103

8 Rheological Model-based Methods for Estimating Tissue Viscoelasticity 105
Jean-Luc Gennisson

8.1 Introduction 105

8.2 Shear Modulus and Rheological Models 106

8.3 Applications of Rheological Models 113

References 116

9 Wave Propagation in ViscoelasticMaterials 118
YueWang andMichael F. Insana

9.1 Introduction 118

9.2 Estimating the Complex Shear Modulus from PropagatingWaves 119

9.3 Wave Generation and Propagation 120

9.4 Rheological Models 122

9.5 Experimental Results and Applications 124

9.6 Summary 125

References 126

Section IV Static and Low Frequency Elastography 129

10 Validation of Quantitative Linear and Nonlinear Compression Elastography 131
Jean Francois Dord, Sevan Goenezen, Assad A. Oberai, Paul E. Barbone, Jingfeng Jiang,Timothy J. Hall, and Theo Pavan

10.1 Introduction 131

10.2 Methods 132

10.3 Results 134

10.4 Discussion 137

10.5 Conclusions 140

Acknowledgement 141

References 141

11 Cardiac Strain and Strain Rate Imaging 143
Brecht Heyde, OanaMirea, and Jan D’hooge

11.1 Introduction 143

11.2 Strain Definitions in Cardiology 143

11.3 Methodologies Towards Cardiac Strain (Rate) Estimation 145

11.4 Experimental Validation of the Proposed Methodologies 149

11.4.1 Synthetic Data Testing 150

11.5 Clinical Applications 151

11.6 Future Developments 153

References 154

12 Vascular and Intravascular Elastography 161
Marvin M. Doyley

12.1 Introduction 161

12.2 General Principles 161

12.3 Conclusion 168

References 168

13 Viscoelastic Creep Imaging 171
Carolina Amador Carrascal

13.1 Introduction 171

13.2 Overview of Governing Principles 172

13.3 Imaging Techniques 173

13.4 Conclusion 187

References 187

14 Intrinsic CardiovascularWave and Strain Imaging 189
Elisa Konofagou

14.1 Introduction 189

14.2 Cardiac Imaging 189

14.3 Vascular Imaging 208

Acknowledgements 219

References 219

Section V Harmonic ElastographyMethods 227

15 Dynamic Elasticity Imaging 229
Kevin J. Parker

15.1 Vibration Amplitude Sonoelastography: Early Results 229

15.2 Sonoelastic Theory 229

15.3 Vibration Phase Gradient Sonoelastography 232

15.4 CrawlingWaves 233

15.5 Clinical Results 233

15.6 Conclusion 234

Acknowledgments 235

References 235

16 Harmonic ShearWave Elastography 238
Heng Zhao

16.1 Introduction 238

16.2 Basic Principles 239

16.3 Ex Vivo Validation 242

16.4 In Vivo Application 244

16.5 Summary 246

Acknowledgments 247

References 247

17 Vibro-acoustography and its Medical Applications 250
Azra Alizad andMostafa Fatemi

17.1 Introduction 250

17.2 Background 250

17.3 Application of Vibro-acoustography for Detection of Calcifications 251

17.4 In Vivo Breast Vibro-acoustography 254

17.5 In VivoThyroid Vibro-acoustography 259

17.6 Limitations and Further Future Plans 260

Acknowledgments 261

References 261

18 Harmonic Motion Imaging 264
Elisa Konofagou

18.1 Introduction 264

18.2 Background 264

18.3 Methods 267

18.4 Preclinical Studies 273

18.5 Future Prospects 277

Acknowledgements 279

References 279

19 ShearWave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry 284
Pengfei Song and Shigao Chen

19.1 Introduction 284

19.2 Principles of ShearWave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) 284

19.3 Clinical Applications 286

19.4 Summary 291

References 292

Section VI Transient ElastographyMethods 295

20 Transient Elastography: From Research to Noninvasive Assessment of Liver Fibrosis Using Fibroscan® 297
Laurent Sandrin,Magali Sasso, Stéphane Audière, Cécile Bastard, Céline Fournier,Jennifer Oudry, Véronique Miette, and Stefan Catheline

20.1 Introduction 297

20.2 Principles of Transient Elastography 297

20.3 Fibroscan 301

20.4 Application of Vibration-controlled Transient Elastography to Liver Diseases 306

20.5 Other Applications of Transient Elastography 309

20.6 Conclusion 310

References 311

21 From Time Reversal to Natural ShearWave Imaging 318
Stefan Catheline

21.1 Introduction: Time Reversal ShearWave in Soft Solids 318

21.2 ShearWave Elastography using Correlation: Principle and Simulation Results 320

21.3 Experimental Validation in Controlled Media 323

21.4 Natural ShearWave Elastography: First In Vivo Results in the Liver, theThyroid, and the Brain 328

21.5 Conclusion 331

References 331

22 Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Ultrasound 334
Tomasz J. Czernuszewicz and Caterina M. Gallippi

22.1 Introduction 334

22.2 Impulsive Acoustic Radiation Force 334

22.3 Monitoring ARFI-induced Tissue Motion 335

22.4 ARFI Data Acquisition 340

22.5 ARFI Image Formation 341

22.6 Real-time ARFI Imaging 343

22.7 Quantitative ARFI Imaging 345

22.8 ARFI Imaging in Clinical Applications 346

22.9 Commercial Implementation 350

22.10 Related Technologies 350

22.11 Conclusions 351

References 351

23 Supersonic Shear Imaging 357
Jean-Luc Gennisson andMickael Tanter

23.1 Introduction 357

23.2 Radiation Force Excitation 357

23.3 Ultrafast Imaging 362

23.4 ShearWave Speed Mapping 364

23.5 Conclusion 365

References 366

24 Single Tracking Location ShearWave Elastography 368
Stephen A.McAleavey

24.1 Introduction 368

24.2 SMURF 370

24.3 STL-SWEI 373

24.4 Noise in SWE/Speckle Bias 376

24.5 Estimation of viscoelastic parameters (STL-VE) 380

24.6 Conclusion 384

References 384

25 Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography 388
Pengfei Song and Shigao Chen

25.1 Introduction 388

25.2 Principles of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) 389

25.3 Clinical Applications of CUSE 396

25.4 Summary 396

References 397

Section VII Emerging Research Areas in Ultrasound Elastography 399

26 Anisotropic ShearWave Elastography 401
Sara Aristizabal

26.1 Introduction 401

26.2 ShearWave Propagation in Anisotropic Media 402

26.3 Anisotropic ShearWave Elastography Applications 403

26.4 Conclusion 420

References 420

27 Application of GuidedWaves for Quantifying Elasticity and Viscoelasticity of Boundary Sensitive Organs 422
Sara Aristizabal, Matthew Urban, Luiz Vasconcelos, BenjaminWood,Miguel Bernal,Javier Brum, and Ivan Nenadic

27.1 Introduction 422

27.2 Myocardium 422

27.3 Arteries 426

27.4 Urinary Bladder 431

27.5 Cornea 433

27.6 Tendons 435

27.7 Conclusions 439

References 439

28 Model-free Techniques for Estimating Tissue Viscoelasticity 442
Daniel Escobar, Luiz Vasconcelos, Carolina Amador Carrascal, and Ivan Nenadic

28.1 Introduction 442

28.2 Overview of Governing Principles 442

28.3 Imaging Techniques 443

28.4 Conclusion 449

References 449

29 Nonlinear Shear Elasticity 451
Jean-Luc Gennisson and Sara Aristizabal

29.1 Introduction 451

29.2 Shocked Plane ShearWaves 451

29.3 Nonlinear Interaction of Plane ShearWaves 455

29.4 Acoustoelasticity Theory 460

29.5 Assessment of 4th Order Nonlinear Shear Parameter 465

29.6 Conclusion 468

References 468

Section VIII Clinical Elastography Applications 471

30 Current and Future Clinical Applications of Elasticity Imaging Techniques 473
Matthew Urban

30.1 Introduction 473

30.2 Clinical Implementation and Use of Elastography 474

30.3 Clinical Applications 475

30.3.1 Liver 475

30.3.2 Breast 476

30.3.3 Thyroid 476

30.3.4 Musculoskeletal 476

30.3.5 Kidney 477

30.3.6 Heart 478

30.3.7 Arteries and Atherosclerotic Plaques 479

30.4 FutureWork in Clinical Applications of Elastography 480

30.5 Conclusions 480

Acknowledgments 480

References 481

31 Abdominal Applications of ShearWave Ultrasound Vibrometry and Supersonic Shear Imaging 492
Pengfei Song and Shigao Chen

31.1 Introduction 492

31.2 Liver Application 492

31.3 Prostate Application 494

31.4 Kidney Application 495

31.5 Intestine Application 496

31.6 Uterine Cervix Application 497

31.7 Spleen Application 497

31.8 Pancreas Application 497

31.9 Bladder Application 498

31.10 Summary 499

References 499

32 Acoustic Radiation Force-based Ultrasound Elastography for Cardiac Imaging Applications 504
Stephanie A. Eyerly-Webb,MaryamVejdani-Jahromi, Vaibhav Kakkad, Peter Hollender,David Bradway, andGregg Trahey

32.1 Introduction 504

32.2 Acoustic Radiation Force-based Elastography Techniques 504

32.3 ARF-based Elasticity Assessment of Cardiac Function 505

32.4 ARF-based Image Guidance for Cardiac Radiofrequency Ablation Procedures 510

32.5 Conclusions 515

Funding Acknowledgements 515

References 516

33 Cardiovascular Application of ShearWave Elastography 520
Pengfei Song and Shigao Chen

33.1 Introduction 520

33.2 Cardiovascular ShearWave Imaging Techniques 521

33.3 Clinical Applications of Cardiovascular ShearWave Elastography 525

33.4 Summary 529

References 530

34 Musculoskeletal Applications of Supersonic Shear Imaging 534
Jean-Luc Gennisson

34.1 Introduction 534

34.2 Muscle Stiffness at Rest and During Passive Stretching 535

34.3 Active and Dynamic Muscle Stiffness 537

34.4 Tendon Applications 539

34.5 Clinical Applications 541

34.6 Future Directions 542

References 542

35 Breast ShearWave Elastography 545
Azra Alizad

35.1 Introduction 545

35.2 Background 545

35.3 Breast Elastography Techniques 546

35.4 Application of CUSE for Breast Cancer Detection 548

35.5 CUSE on a Clinical Ultrasound Scanner 549

35.6 Limitations of Breast ShearWave Elastography 551

35.7 Conclusion 552

Acknowledgments 552

References 552

36 Thyroid ShearWave Elastography 557
Azra Alizad

36.1 Introduction 557

36.2 Background 557

36.3 Role of Ultrasound and its Limitation inThyroid Cancer Detection 557

36.4 Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) 558

36.5 The Role of Elasticity Imaging 558

36.6 Application of CUSE onThyroid 561

36.7 CUSE on Clinical Ultrasound Scanner 561

36.8 Conclusion 563

Acknowledgments 564

References 564

Section IX Perspective on Ultrasound Elastography 567

37 Historical Growth of Ultrasound Elastography and Directions for the Future 569
Armen Sarvazyan andMatthewW. Urban

37.1 Introduction 569

37.2 Elastography Publication Analysis 569

37.3 Future Investigations of Acoustic Radiation Force for Elastography 574

37.3.1 Nondissipative Acoustic Radiation Force 574

37.3.2 Nonlinear Enhancement of Acoustic Radiation Force 575

37.3.3 SpatialModulation of Acoustic Radiation Force Push Beams 575

37.4 Conclusions 576

Acknowledgments 577

References 577

Index 581