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The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, 10th Edition

The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, 10th Edition

Mark S. Ashton, Matthew J. Kelty

ISBN: 978-1-119-27130-7

Jan 2018

776 pages



The most up-to-date, comprehensive resource on silviculture that covers the range of topics and issues facing today’s foresters and resource professionals 

The tenth edition of the classic work, The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, includes the most current information and the results of research on the many issues that are relevant to forests and forestry. The text covers such timely topics as biofuels and intensive timber production, ecosystem and landscape scale management of public lands, ecosystem services, surface drinking water supplies, urban and community greenspace, forest carbon, fire and climate, and much more. 

In recent years, silvicultural systems have become more sophisticated and complex in application, particularly with a focus on multi-aged silviculture. There have been paradigm shifts toward managing for more complex structures and age-classes for integrated and complementary values including wildlife, water and open space recreation. Extensively revised and updated, this new edition covers a wide range of topics and challenges relevant to the forester or resource professional today. This full-color text offers the most expansive book on silviculture and: 

  • Includes a revised and expanded text with clear language and explanations
  • Covers the many cutting-edge resource issues that are relevant to forests and forestry
  • Contains boxes within each chapter to provide greater detail on particular silvicultural treatments and examples of their use
  • Features a completely updated bibliography plus new photographs, tables and figures

The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, Tenth Edition is an invaluable resource for students and professionals in forestry and natural resource management.

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Preface xvi

Acknowledgements xvii

Part 1 Introduction to Silviculture 1

1 The History and Philosophy of Silviculture 3

Introduction 3

Silviculture, its Origin and Development as an Applied Ecology 3

The Philosophies of Silviculture as a Practice 12

Silviculture as a Body of Knowledge 17

References 19

2 Silviculture and its Place in Managing Current Forests and Woodlands 22

Introduction 22

The Purpose of Silviculture Today 22

Definition of Silviculture 22

Scope and Terminology of Silvicultural Practice 25

The Silviculture Framework for Managing a Forest 29

References 31

Part 2 Ecological Foundations of Silviculture 33

3 Ecological Site Classification, Stands as Management Units, and Landscape‐Scale Planning 35

Introduction 35

Ecological Methods of Identifying and Classifying Sites 36

Stands as Management Units 48

New Developments in Landscape‐Level Ecological Planning 56

References 59

4 Stand Dynamics: The Ecology of Forest Succession 63

Introduction 63

Initiating Disturbances and Sources of Regeneration 63

Stages of Stand Development 63

Defining Cohorts and Age Classes 68

Defining Canopy Stratification by Age Class 68

Relationship of Stand Dynamics to Other Interpretations of Vegetational Development 75

Choice of Developmental Patterns 77

References 78

5 Ecology of Regeneration 80

Introduction 80

Ecological Role of Natural Disturbance 80

The Regeneration Process 92

Disturbance, Climate, and Regional Patterns in Floristics of Forest Regeneration 104

Regeneration Methods as Analogs to Natural Disturbance 111

References 112

Part 3 Methods of Regeneration 117

6 Development of Silvicultural Systems and Methods of Regeneration 119

Introduction 119

Conceptual Formation of Silvicultural Systems: The Science of Place 119

Classification of Natural Regeneration Methods 124

Classification of Plantations and Artificial Seeding 129

Naming Silvicultural Systems: The Taxonomy 131

Summary Remarks 135

References 136

7 Site Treatments 137

Introduction 137

Disposal of Logging Slash 137

Treatment of the Forest Floor and Competing Vegetation 145

References 162

Part 3A Natural Regeneration Methods 169

8 Natural Regeneration: The Clearcutting Method 171

Introduction 171

The Protocol 171

Regeneration of Pure Stands from Natural Seeding 173

Applications of True Clearcutting: Case Studies from North America 177

References 183

9 Natural Regeneration: The Seed‐Tree Method 185

Introduction 185

The Protocol 187

Variations in Spatial Patterns of Stand Structure 192

Application of Seed‐Tree Methods 193

References 201

10 Natural Regeneration: The Shelterwood Method 204

Introduction 204

The Protocol for the Uniform Shelterwood 206

Protocols for Alternative Arrangements 212

Application of Shelterwood Methods 215

References 224

11 Natural Regeneration: Irregular Seed-Tree and Shelterwood Methods (Multi-Aged Systems) 228

Introduction 228

Development of Two‐ or Three‐Aged Stands 229

Regeneration Methods Including Reserve Trees within Irregular Seed‐Tree and Shelterwood Systems 229

Application of Two‐ or Three‐Aged Systems 233

References 248

12 Natural Regeneration: The Coppice Method 251

Introduction 251

Vegetative Regeneration and the Nature of Disturbance 251

The Physiology and Morphology of Sprouting 252

Types of Vegetative Regeneration 252

Simple Coppice Systems 257

Coppice Systems with Irregular Structures and Age Classes 265

The Role of Coppice Stands in the Past, Present, and Future 267

Conversion of Coppice Stands to High Forests 269

References 269

13 Natural Regeneration: Selection Methods 272

Introduction 272

The Protocol 273

The Selection Regeneration Method and its Variations 273

Managing for Balanced All‐Aged Stands 277

Managing for Unbalanced All‐Aged Stands 286

Application of the Selection Method of Regeneration 288

References 300

Part 3B Methods Based on Artificial Regeneration 303

14 Species Selection and Genetic Improvement 305

Introduction 305

Selection of Species and Provenances 306

Adaptation to Site 306

Genetic Improvement 312

References 320

15 Nursery, Planting, and Seeding Techniques 322

Introduction 322

Propagation 322

Planting and Seeding 337

References 348

16 The Arrangement, Composition, and Methods of Planting 350

Introduction 350

The Role of Planting 350

Density of Plantings 351

Spatial Arrangement of Plantings 352

High Forest Plantations 353

Low Forest Plantations 371

Protection of New Plantations 373

References 375

Part 4 Post‐Establishment (Intermediate) Treatments 379

17 Tree and Stand Growth 381

Introduction 381

Growth within Individual Trees 381

Stand Scale Patterns of Production 390

The Effect of Thinning on Stand Production 395

The Effect of Thinning on the Economic Yield of Stands 397

References 401

18 Post‐Establishment Tools in Silviculture 403

Introduction 403

Cutting and Girdling 403

Use of Herbicides 404

Methods of Applying Herbicides 410

Use of Insecticides 412

Prescribed Burning 413

Use of Fertilizer 419

Irrigation 420

References 420

19 Pruning Methods and Applications 424

Introduction 424

The Ecology of Natural Pruning Processes 424

Pruning Trees to Improve Timber Quality in Forests 428

Techniques of Pruning Open Grown Trees Within Urban Environments 434

Training and Pruning Fruit and Shade Trees in Orchards and Agroforestry Systems 438

References 441

20 Release Operations in Seedling and Sapling Stands 443

Introduction 443

Competing Vegetation 443

Concept of Free‐To‐Grow 444

Early Use of Release Treatments 444

Vegetation Control Methods 445

Timing and Extent of Release Treatments 451

Ecological Impact of Release Treatments on Plant Communities 453

Liberation Treatments 455

Release Treatments that Control Invasives 457

References 458

21 Methods of Thinning 461

Introduction 461

The Different Approaches to Thinning 461

Low Thinning 462

Crown Thinning 468

Dominant Thinning 473

Free‐Form Thinning 477

Variable‐Density Thinning 477

Geometric Thinning 478

Application of Thinnings 481

References 483

22 Quantitative Thinning: Theory and Application 486

Introduction 486

Conceptual and Experimental Proof for Thinning 486

Thinning and its Objectives 486

Quantitative Thinning Guidelines 496Density, Stocking, and Relative Density 496

References 504

Part 5 Silvicultural Considerations for Managing All Forests 507

23 Conservation Management Practices 509

Introduction 509

Management Practices 509

References 531

Contents xiii

24 Silviculture for Wildlife Habitat 534

Introduction 534

Habitat Elements Within Stands 535

Landscape Elements Across Stands 551

Examples of Application 555

Control of Wildlife Damage to Trees 560

References 561

25 Silvicultural Applications to Forest Restoration: Rehabilitation and Reclamation 565

Introduction 565

Degradation and Restoration Processes of Forests 565

Categories of Forest Degradation and their Restoration Treatments 567

Summary 593

References 594

26 Approaches to and Treatments for Maintaining Healthy Forest Ecosystems 597

Introduction 597

The Growing Threat of Non‐Native Invasive Insects and Disease 597

The Concept of Forest Ecosystem Health within Stand Dynamics 600

Protection Against Biotic Agencies: Insects and Disease 601

Protection Against Abiotic Agencies 606

Using Silviculture to Control Damage 611

References 615

27 Managing Forest Carbon in Changing Climates 618

Introduction 618

The Ecology of Forest Carbon 618

Avoiding Deforestation and Increasing Reforestation 620

Carbon Management in Existing Forests 622

The Use of Wood as Biomass Energyor in Wood Products for Carbon Storage 624

References 625

Part 6 Silvicultural Applications for Different Land Uses 629

28 Ecosystem Management: Managing Public Natural Forests for Multiple Values 631

Introduction 631

Regional and Global Differences in Public Land Ownership 631

Managing Complex Large‐Scale Forests 633

The Ecosystem‐Management Paradigm 633

Regional Examples of Ecosystem Management 636

References 642

29 Application of Silviculture to Watershed Management 645

Introduction 645

Baseline Watershed Conditions 646

Paired Watershed Studies: Impacts of Land Clearance and Forest Disturbance 649

Managing Forests for Water Quality: Examples from the United States 654

Managing Forests for Water Yield: Examples from the United States 660

Summary 663

References 663

30 Industrial Timber Management 665

Introduction 665

Principles of Regulating Timber Harvests 665

Considerations for Timber Production in Forests 666

Global and National Trends in Industrial Plantation Forestry 669

References 676

31 Application of Silviculture to Agroforestry 677

Introduction 677

Stages of Stand Development and Agroforestry 678

Successional Agri‐silvicultural Practices 679

Permanent Agri‐silvicultural Practices 683

Selection of Tree Species for Agroforestry 689

References 689

32 Application of Silviculture to Urban Ecosystems and the Urban–Rural Interface 694

Introduction 694

Aesthetics and Landscape Design of Urban Forests 694

Mitigating Urban Meso‐ and Micro‐Environments 701

The Application of Silviculture to Urban Watersheds 704

References 708

Common and Scientific Names of Trees and Shrubs Mentioned in the Text 711

Glossary of Terms 716

Index 731