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Sustainable Environmental Engineering

Sustainable Environmental Engineering

Walter Z. Tang, Mika Sillanpää

ISBN: 978-1-119-08558-4

Aug 2018

528 pages

$120.99

Description

The important resource that explores the twelve design principles of sustainable environmental engineering

Sustainable Environmental Engineering (SEE) is to research, design, and build Environmental Engineering Infrastructure System (EEIS) in harmony with nature using life cycle cost analysis and benefit analysis and life cycle assessment and to protect human health and environments at minimal cost. The foundations of the SEE are the twelve design principles (TDPs) with three specific rules for each principle. The TDPs attempt to transform how environmental engineering could be taught by prioritizing six design hierarchies through six different dimensions. Six design hierarchies are prevention, recovery, separation, treatment, remediation, and optimization. Six dimensions are integrated system, material economy, reliability on spatial scale, resiliency on temporal scale, and cost effectiveness. In addition, the authors, two experts in the field, introduce major computer packages that are useful to solve real environmental engineering design problems. 

The text presents how specific environmental engineering issues could be identified and prioritized under climate change through quantification of air, water, and soil quality indexes. For water pollution control, eight innovative technologies which are critical in the paradigm shift from the conventional environmental engineering design to water resource recovery facility (WRRF) are examined in detail. These new processes include UV disinfection, membrane separation technologies, Anammox, membrane biological reactor, struvite precipitation, Fenton process, photocatalytic oxidation of organic pollutants, as well as green infrastructure. Computer tools are provided to facilitate life cycle cost and benefit analysis of WRRF. This important resource:

•    Includes statistical analysis of engineering design parameters using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)

•    Presents Monte Carlos simulation using Crystal ball to quantify uncertainty and sensitivity of design parameters

•    Contains design methods of new energy, materials, processes, products, and system to achieve energy positive WRRF that are illustrated with Matlab

•    Provides information on life cycle costs in terms of capital and operation for different processes using MatLab

Written for senior or graduates in environmental or chemical engineering, Sustainable Environmental Engineering defines and illustrates the TDPs of SEE. Undergraduate, graduate, and engineers should find the computer codes are useful in their EEIS design. The exercise at the end of each chapter encourages students to identify EEI engineering problems in their own city and find creative solutions by applying the TDPs. For more information, please visit www.tang.fiu.edu.  

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Preface xv

1 Renewable Resources and Environmental Quality 1

1.1 Renewable Resources and Energy 1

1.2 Human Demand and Footprint 5

1.2.1 Human Demand 5

1.2.2 Human Footprints 6

1.2.2.1 Water Footprints 7

1.2.2.2 Gray Water System 7

1.3 Challenges and Opportunities 9

1.3.1 Excessive Nitrogen Runoff 10

1.3.2 Phosphorus Depletion 10

1.3.3 Carbon Pollution 11

1.3.4 Peak Oil 11

1.3.5 Climate Change 11

1.4 Carrying Capacity 11

1.5 Air, Water, and Soil Quality Index 13

1.5.1 Air Quality Standards 13

1.5.2 Air Quality Index 13

1.5.3 Water Quality Index 14

1.5.4 Soil Quality Index 17

1.5.4.1 F1 (Scope) 17

1.5.4.2 F2 (Frequency) 17

1.5.4.3 F3 (Amplitude) 17

1.5.4.4 Soil Quality Index (SQI) 18

1.6 Air, Water, and Soil Pollution 19

1.6.1 Air Pollution 19

1.6.2 Water Pollution 19

1.7 Life Cycle Assessment 21

1.7.1 LCA Tools 22

1.8 Environmental Laws 22

1.9 Exercise 24

1.9.1 Questions 24

1.9.2 Assignment 25

1.9.3 Problems 25

1.9.4 Projects 25

1.9.4.1 Xiongan Project 25

1.9.4.2 Community Project 26

References 26

2 Health Risk Assessment 29

2.1 Environmental Health 29

2.2 Environmental Standards 31

2.3 Health Risk Assessment 36

2.3.1 Hazard Identification 36

2.3.2 Dose–Response Curves 37

2.3.2.1 Nonlinear Dose–Response Assessment 37

2.3.2.2 Linear Dose–Response Assessment 40

2.3.3 Exposure Assessment 41

2.3.3.1 Cancer Screening Calculation for Dermal Contaminants in Water 41

2.3.3.2 Noncancer Screening Calculation for Contaminants in Residential Soil 43

2.3.4 DBP Health Advisory Concentration 44

2.3.5 Risk Characterizations 46

2.4 QSAR Analysis in HRA 46

2.4.1 Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) 48

2.4.2 Validation of QSAR Models 49

2.5 Quantification of Uncertainty 54

2.5.1 Quantification of QSAR Model’s Uncertainty 55

2.5.2 Monte Carlo Simulation 56

2.5.3 Comparison of Uncertainties of Different QSAR Models 60

2.5.4 Sensitivity Analysis by Monte Carlo Simulation 61

2.5.5 Computer Software for Quantitative Risk Assessment 62

2.6 Exercise 62

2.6.1 Questions 62

2.6.2 Calculation 62

2.6.3 Assignment 63

2.6.4 Projects 63

2.6.4.1 Xiongan Project 63

2.6.4.2 Community Project 63

References 63

3 Twelve Design Principles of Sustainable Environmental Engineering 67

3.1 Sustainability 67

3.1.1 The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 68

3.2 Challenges and Opportunities 69

3.2.1 Challenges 69

3.2.2 Opportunities 71

3.3 Sustainable Environmental Engineering 74

3.3.1 SEE Metrics 76

3.4 SEE Design Principles 78

3.4.1 Principle 1: Integrated and Interconnected System Hierarchy 78

3.4.2 Principle 2: Reliability on Spatial Scale 79

3.4.3 Principle 3: System Resiliency on a Temporal Scale 80

3.4.3.1 Principle 4: Efficiency of Renewable Material 80

3.4.4 Principle 6: Prevention 82

3.4.5 Principle 7: Recovery 83

3.5 Principle 8: Separation 84

3.5.1 Principle 9: Treatment 85

3.5.2 Principle 10: Retrofitting and Remediation 86

3.5.3 Principle 11: Optimization through Modeling and Simulation 86

3.5.4 Principle 12: Balance Between Capital and Operating Costs 87

3.6 Implementation of the SEE Design Principles 88

3.6.1 Procedure to Implement SEE Design Principles 88

3.6.2 Integration of SEE into Undergraduate Education 89

3.7 Exercise 91

3.7.1 Questions 91

3.7.2 Calculation 91

3.7.3 Projects 92

3.7.3.1 Xiongan Project 92

3.7.3.2 Community Projects 92

3.7.3.3 Proposal Development 92

References 93

4 Integrated and Interconnected Systems 95

4.1 Principle 1 95

4.2 Challenges and Opportunities 98

4.2.1 Market Size of Solid Waste Management in China 98

4.3 Integrated Solid Waste Management 103

4.3.1 Integrated Solid Waste Management Market in China 103

4.3.2 Strategy of ISWM 103

4.3.3 LCA on Footprint of Solid Waste Recycle 109

4.3.4 ISWM Data Analysis 115

4.3.4.1 Calculations for Measuring Quantity 115

4.3.4.2 Calculations for Composition 116

4.3.5 Determining Waste Composition 117

4.3.5.1 Moisture Content 117

4.3.5.2 Calorific Value 117

4.3.5.3 Chemical Composition 117

4.3.5.4 Calorific Values 119

4.3.5.5 Data Presentation 119

4.3.6 Zero Waste 120

4.3.7 Integrated Waster Resource Management (IWRM) 124

4.3.8 Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRF) 127

4.4 Integrated Air Quality Management (IAQM) 131

4.5 Exercise 132

4.5.1 Questions 132

4.5.2 Calculation 133

4.5.3 Projects 133

4.5.3.1 Community Projects 133

4.5.3.2 Xiongan Projects 134

References 134

5 Reliable Systems on a Spatial Scale 135

5.1 Principle 2 135

5.1.1 Central Versus Decentralized WWTP 136

5.1.2 Best Practice for Small WWTPs 137

5.2 Integrated System Approach 137

5.2.1 The EPA Tools 137

5.2.2 Integrated Engineering Design Example 137

5.3 Scale-up of Laboratory or Pilot Design to Full-scale Plant 141

5.3.1 Minimum Requirements for Validation Testing 141

5.3.1.1 Collimated Beam Test 141

5.3.2 Correlation of UV Sensitivity of Different Challenge Microorganisms with Target Microorganisms 143

5.3.2.1 Sampling Ports 144

5.3.3 Calculating the RED 145

5.3.3.1 Flow Rate for Validation 146

5.3.4 Uncertainty in Validation 149

5.3.4.1 Calculating UIN for the Calculated Dose Approach 149

5.3.4.2 Determining the Validated Dose and Validated Operating Conditions 149

5.3.5 Collimated Beam Data Uncertainty 152

5.3.6 Electrical Energy per Order (EE/O) 153

5.4 Exercise 154

5.4.1 Questions 154

5.4.2 Calculation 154

5.4.3 Projects 155

5.4.3.1 Xiongan Design Project 155

5.4.3.2 Community Proposal Project 155

References 155

6 Resiliency on Temporal Scale 157

6.1 Principle 3 157

6.2 Challenges and Opportunities 159

6.3 Discharge Standards 159

6.4 Population Growth 160

6.5 Steady Versus Unsteady 162

6.5.1 Equalization Basin 162

6.6 Hydraulic Condition of Different Reactors 167

6.7 Chemical Kinetics 168

6.8 Group Theory Predicting Hydroxyl Radical Kinetic Constants 172

6.9 Photocatalytic Oxidation of Halogen-substituted Meta-phenols by UV/TiO2 172

6.10 Environmental Issues on Different Temporal Scales 178

6.10.1 Correlation Between Temporal and Spatial Scales in the Sustainable Design of WTPs and WWTPs 178

6.11 Exercise 181

6.11.1 Questions 181

6.11.2 Calculation 181

6.11.3 Project 181

6.11.3.1 Xiongan Project 181

6.11.3.2 Community Proposal Project 182

References 182

7 Efficiency of Renewable Materials 185

7.1 Principle 4 185

7.2 Stoichiometry 185

7.3 Avoid the Addition of Chemicals 187

7.3.1 Avoid Acid Addition 187

7.3.2 Replacing Chlorination with UV Disinfection 193

7.3.3 Anammox to Replace Nitrification/Denitrification 199

7.3.3.1 Nitrogen Forms 199

7.3.3.2 Nitrification 200

7.3.3.3 Denitrification 200

7.3.3.4 Anammox 201

7.4 Design Efficient Reactors 203

7.4.1 Cost of Different Volume Reactors 212

7.5 Exercise 213

7.5.1 Questions 213

7.5.2 Calculation 213

7.5.3 Project 213

7.5.3.1 Xiongan Project 213

7.5.3.2 Proposal Project 214

References 214

8 Efficiency of Renewable Energy 215

8.1 Principle 5 215

8.2 Challenges and Opportunities 216

8.2.1 Inefficient Combustion of Fossil Fuels 216

8.2.2 Challenges in China 217

8.3 Energy Conservation Laws 218

8.3.1 Thermodynamics Laws 218

8.3.2 The First Thermodynamic Law 221

8.3.3 The Second Thermodynamic Law 221

8.3.3.1 Energy Conversion 221

8.3.3.2 Enthalpy 222

8.3.3.3 Conservation of Energy 222

8.4 Energy Balances 223

8.4.1 Physical Framework by Thermodynamics 224

8.4.2 Exergy 225

8.5 Benchmarks for Unit Energy Consumption in WTP and WWTP 225

8.5.1 Unit Energy Consumption Values in WTP 225

8.5.2 Unit Energy Consumption Values in WWTP 225

8.6 Energy Consumption by Pump 232

8.6.1 Flow in Pipe 232

8.6.2 Pump Station 232

8.7 Solar Energy 233

8.7.1 Calculation Solar Energy 233

8.7.2 Solar-powered WWTP 235

8.8 Exercise 235

8.8.1 Questions 235

8.8.2 Calculation 236

8.8.3 Project 236

8.8.3.1 Xiongan Project 236

8.8.3.2 Community Project 236

References 236

9 Prevention 239

9.1 Principle 6 239

9.2 Challenges and Opportunities 240

9.3 Green Infrastructure 241

9.3.1 Integrated Urban Water Management Paradigm 241

9.3.2 Green Infrastructure Design Tools 242

9.3.3 Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools 242

9.4 Design Tools of Rain Harvest 244

9.4.1 Determine the Water Demand of a Public Bathroom 244

9.4.2 Determine the Roof Area and the Tank Size 247

9.4.3 Design Rainwater System by Cumulative Plot Method 250

9.4.4 Design Rainwater System Design to Achieve the Smallest Roof Area 252

9.4.4.1 Flowchart for Rainwater System 252

9.4.5 Determine Roof Area for a Rainwater Harvest Tank Without Adding City Water in the First Year 254

9.4.6 Design Rainwater Harvest Tank for Specific Roof Areas 257

9.4.7 Design a Rainwater Harvest Tank of the Optimized Size 260

9.5 Design Anaerobic Digester Reactor 262

9.6 Green Roof Design 263

9.6.1 Life Cycle Assessment 265

9.6.2 Footprint 266

9.7 Rain Garden Design 268

9.7.1 Life Cycle Assessment 270

9.7.2 Environmental Impacts of Aluminum 271

9.7.3 Cost and Benefit Analysis of Rain Garden 271

9.7.4 Water Footprint 274

9.7.5 Nitrogen and Phosphorus Footprint 274

9.8 Exercise 276

9.8.1 Questions 276

9.8.2 Calculations 276

9.8.3 Projects 276

9.8.3.1 Xiongan Project 276

9.8.3.2 Community Proposal Project 277

References 277

10 Recovery 279

10.1 Principle 7 279

10.2 Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater 280

10.2.1 Phosphorus Removal in Conventional Treatment 281

10.2.2 Chemical Phosphorus Removal 281

10.3 Phosphorus Recovery 283

10.3.1 Enhanced Phosphorus Uptake 283

10.3.2 Struvite Precipitation 284

10.4 Capital and Operation Cost of Reclaiming Water for Reuse 286

10.4.1 Building 286

10.4.2 Headwork 290

10.4.3 Oxidation 293

10.4.4 Aerobic SBR 297

10.4.5 MBR 301

10.4.6 Microfiltration 304

10.4.7 Reverse Osmosis 308

10.4.8 Filtration 311

10.4.9 Disinfection 314

10.5 Exercise 317

10.5.1 Questions 317

10.5.2 Calculations 318

10.5.3 Projects 319

10.5.3.1 Xiongan Project 319

10.5.3.2 Community Proposal Project 319

References 319

11 Separation 321

11.1 Principle 8 321

11.2 Challenges and Opportunities 323

11.3 Precipitation 324

11.4 Coagulation and Flocculation 325

11.4.1 Camp–Stein Equation 326

11.4.2 Static and Plug-flow Reactor Mixers 327

11.4.3 Power, Pressure, and Pump in Reactors 327

11.5 Membrane Filtration Systems 333

11.6 Activated Carbon Adsorption 335

11.7 Anaerobic Membrane Biological Reactor 339

11.8 Air Stripping 341

11.9 LCA Tools for WWTPs 350

11.10 Capital and O&M Costs of Membrane Filtration 353

11.11 Exercise 361

11.11.1 Questions 361

11.11.2 Calculation 361

11.11.3 Projects 361

11.11.3.1 Xiongan Project 361

11.11.3.2 Community Projects 362

References 362

12 Treatment 365

12.1 Principle 9 365

12.2 Challenges 365

12.3 Environmental Regulations 366

12.4 UV Disinfection 370

12.4.1 History 370

12.4.2 Photochemistry 370

12.4.3 UV Dose 371

12.4.4 Absorption Coefficient 372

12.4.5 Fluence 372

12.4.6 UV Dose–Response 374

12.5 Virus Sensitivity Index of UV Disinfection 376

12.5.1 Virus Sensitivity Index (VSI) 376

12.5.2 Applications of VSI 379

12.6 Bacteria Sensitivity Index (BSI) with Shoulder Effect 381

12.6.1 Bacteria Sensitivity Index (BSI) 381

12.6.2 Shoulder Broadness Index (SBI) 382

12.6.3 Transformation of H into ΔH/ΔHr 382

12.6.4 Validation of the Models 384

12.6.5 Application of the Model 384

12.6.5.1 Experimental Data of UV Disinfection of ARBs 384

12.6.5.2 Error Analysis of Predicted H Compared with the Observed H 386

12.6.5.3 Prediction of Fluence Required at 5 log I for ARBs 386

12.7 Emerging Treatment Technologies 386

12.8 Design Considerations of UV Disinfection System 389

12.8.1 UV Dose 390

12.8.2 Hydraulic Retention Time 390

12.8.3 UV Lamps 391

12.8.4 Turbidity 391

12.8.5 Typical Design Lives of Major UV Components 391

12.9 Exercise 392

12.9.1 Questions 392

12.9.2 Calculations 392

12.9.3 Projects 392

12.9.3.1 Xiongan Project 392

12.9.3.2 Community Proposal Project 392

References 392

13 Green Retrofitting and Remediation 395

13.1 Principle 10 395

13.2 Challenges of WWTP Design 395

13.2.1 Energy Efficiency of Water and Wastewater Treatment 396

13.3 Anaerobic Digestion for Biogas Production 396

13.3.1 Operation Guidelines for Wastewater Treatment Plants 397

13.4 Best Practice Benchmark 399

13.5 Green Retrofitting 400

13.5.1 Energy Auditing 400

13.5.1.1 Phototrophic System 404

13.5.1.2 Renewable Energy for WWTPs 406

13.6 Sludge Processing and Disposal 406

13.6.1 Design of Wastewater Sludge Thickeners 407

13.6.2 Suspended Solids Removal Efficiency 408

13.6.3 Anaerobic Digester Capacity 409

13.6.4 Aerobic Sludge Digestion 409

13.6.5 Retrofitting Strategies of WWTPs 410

13.7 Green Remediation 410

13.7.1 Green Remediation Metrics and Methods 411

13.7.2 Approaches to Reducing Footprints 416

13.7.2.1 Approaches to Reducing Materials and Waste Footprints 416

13.7.2.2 Approaches to Reducing Water Footprints 416

13.7.2.3 Approaches to Reducing Energy and Air Footprints 417

13.7.3 Evaluation Methods 419

13.7.3.1 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Evaluation Fact Sheet 419

13.7.3.2 Future Land Use 420

13.7.3.3 Green Building 420

13.7.3.4 Post-remediation Site Conditions 420

13.8 Tools 421

13.9 Exercise 421

13.9.1 Questions 421

13.9.2 Calculation 421

13.9.3 Projects 422

13.9.3.1 Xiongan Project 422

13.9.3.2 Community Project Proposal 422

References 423

14 Optimization through Modeling and Simulation 425

14.1 Principle 425

14.2 Introduction 425

14.2.1 History of Landfill Leachate Quality 426

14.2.2 Leachate Characteristics 426

14.3 Challenges and Opportunities 428

14.4 Modeling of the Fenton Process 428

14.4.1 Kinetic Model of DMPO–OH EPR Signal 429

14.5 Simulation 436

14.6 Optimization 437

14.6.1 Fenton Oxidation of Landfill Leachate 437

14.6.2 Optimization Fenton Oxidation of Leachate 439

14.6.3 Optimum Operating Conditions 440

14.6.3.1 pH 440

14.6.3.2 Reaction Time 440

14.6.3.3 Effect of Reaction Time on Fenton Oxidation 440

14.6.3.4 Temperature 442

14.6.3.5 Fenton Reagent Dose 442

14.6.3.6 Generalized Fenton Dosing for Landfill Leachate Treatment 443

14.6.3.7 Total COD Removal Under Different LCOD 444

14.6.3.8 Effect of LCOD on COD Removal Efficiency 445

14.6.3.9 Effect of LCOD on Biodegradability 445

14.6.3.10 Effect of LCOD on Cost of Fenton Process Treatment for Landfill Leachate 446

14.7 Validation and Uncertainty 447

14.8 Exercise 448

14.8.1 Questions 448

14.8.2 Calculations 449

14.8.3 Projects 449

14.8.3.1 Xiongan Project 449

14.8.3.2 Community Project 449

References 450

15 Life Cycle Cost and Benefit Analysis 453

15.1 Principle 453

15.2 Challenges and Opportunities 453

15.3 Optimum Pipe Size 454

15.4 Advanced Oxidation Process Costs 461

15.4.1 UV Disinfection 461

15.5 Recovery of N and P 465

15.5.1 Yield Coefficients 466

15.5.2 Capital Cost of P Recovery Systems 469

15.5.3 Activated Sludge 469

15.5.4 Two-Stage Activated Sludge 474

15.5.5 Three-Stage Activated Sludge 477

15.5.6 Three-Stage Activated Sludge with Alum Addition 479

15.5.7 Three-Stage Activated Sludge with Alum and Tertiary Clarifier 482

15.5.8 Three-Stage Activated Sludge with Alum, Tertiary Clarifier, and Filtration 484

15.5.9 Three-Stage Activated Sludge with Tertiary Clarifier and Activated Aluminum Absorption 487

15.5.10 Three-Stage Activated Sludge with Tertiary Clarifier and Activated Absorption 489

15.6 Entrepreneur in SEE 492

15.6.1 Business Plan 493

15.6.2 Finance of Environmental Infrastructure 493

15.6.3 EEI Financing 493

15.6.4 Financial Planning 495

15.7 Innovation in SEE 495

15.7.1 Innovative Technologies 495

15.7.2 Innovative Consumer Products 495

15.7.2.1 SteriPEN 495

15.7.2.2 Drinkable Book™ 496

15.7.3 Future of SEE 496

15.8 Exercise 497

15.8.1 Questions 497

15.8.2 Calculations 497

15.8.3 Projects 497

15.8.3.1 Xiongan Project 498

15.8.3.2 Community Project Proposal 498

15.8.3.3 Course Project and Beyond 499

References 499

Index 501