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Polymer Coatings: A Guide to Chemistry, Characterization, and Selected Applications

Polymer Coatings: A Guide to Chemistry, Characterization, and Selected Applications

Gijsbertus de With

ISBN: 978-3-527-80633-1

Jul 2018

312 pages

$172.99

Description

A practical guide to polymer coatings that covers all aspects from materials to applications 

Polymer Coatings is a practical resource that offers an overview of the fundamentals to the synthesis, characterization, deposition methods, and recent developments of polymer coatings. The text includes information about the different polymers and polymer networks in use, resins for solvent- and water-based coatings, and a variety of additives. It presents deposition methods that encompass frequently used mechanical and electrochemical approaches, in addition to the physical-chemical aspects of the coating process. The author covers the available characterization methods including spectroscopic, morphological, thermal and mechanical techniques.

The comprehensive text also reviews developments in selected technology areas such as electrically conductive, anti-fouling, and self-replenishing coatings. The author includes insight into the present status of the research field, describes systems currently under investigation, and draws our attention to yet to be explored systems. This important text:

• Offers a thorough overview of polymer coatings and their applications

• Covers different classes of materials, deposition methods, coating processes, and ways of characterization

• Contains a text that is designed to be accessible and helps to apply the acquired knowledge immediately

• Includes information on selected areas of research with imminent application potential for functional coatings

Written for chemists in industry, materials scientists, polymer chemists, and physical chemists, Polymer Coatings offers a text that contains the information needed to gain an understanding of the charaterization and applications of polymer coatings.

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xvii

List of Most Important Symbols and Abbreviations xix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Scope 1

1.2 The Importance of Polymer Coatings 2

1.3 The General Constitution of Polymer Coatings 5

1.3.1 Binders and Crosslinkers 6

1.3.2 Pigments and Fillers 8

1.3.3 Additives 12

1.3.4 Solvents 12

1.4 Coating Requirements 14

1.5 Outline and Approach 15

References 16

Further Reading 16

2 Polymers and Network Characteristics 19

2.1 Polymers 19

2.1.1 Polymer Conformations 22

2.1.2 Entanglements 23

2.1.3 Crystallinity 24

2.1.4 Amorphous Polymers 26

2.2 Polymer Formation 30

2.2.1 Step-growth Polymerization 31

2.2.2 Branching and Gelation 33

2.2.3 Limits to the Preparation of Branched Polymers 36

2.2.4 Chain-growth Polymerization 38

2.3 Polymer Networks 41

2.4 Final Remarks 45

References 45

Further Reading 46

3 Thermoset Resins 47

3.1 Petro-based Thermoset Resins 47

3.2 Epoxy Systems 47

3.3 Acrylates and Acrylics 51

3.4 Isocyanates 53

3.5 Polyurethanes 55

3.6 Polyesters 56

3.7 Renewable Raw Materials 57

3.8 Drying Oils 63

3.9 Alkyds 65

References 68

Further Reading 69

4 Basic Coating Formulations 71

4.1 Coating Compositions in General 71

4.2 Solventborne Formulations 72

4.2.1 Solventborne High Solids Formulations 75

4.2.2 Chemistries of Solventborne High Solids Formulations 80

4.3 Waterborne Formulations 85

4.3.1 Chemistries of Waterborne Formulations 90

4.3.2 Challenges and Applications of Waterborne Formulations 93

4.4 Radiation Curing Formulations 96

4.4.1 Photoinitiators 97

4.4.2 Chemistries of Radiation Curing Formulations 99

4.4.3 Chemistries of Powder Coating Formulations 103

4.4.4 Pros and Cons of Radiation Curing 105

4.5 Final Remarks 106

References 108

Further Reading 108

5 Additives and Particulates 109

5.1 Types of Additives 109

5.2 Thickeners 110

5.2.1 Inorganic Thickeners 110

5.2.2 Organic Thickeners 112

5.3 Surface Active Agents 116

5.3.1 Wetting and Dispersing Agents 117

5.3.2 Antifoaming Agents 117

5.3.3 Adhesion Promoters 118

5.4 Surface Modifiers 120

5.5 Leveling and Coalescing Agents 120

5.6 Catalytically Active Additives 121

5.6.1 Dryers 122

5.6.2 Other Catalysts 123

5.7 Special Effect Additives 128

5.8 Particulates 130

References 133

Further Reading 134

6 Application Methods 135

6.1 Conventional Deposition Techniques 135

6.1.1 Brushing and Rolling 135

6.1.2 Spraying 136

6.2 Laboratory and Industrial Methods 138

6.2.1 Doctor Blade Coating 138

6.2.2 Spin Coating 139

6.2.3 Dip Coating 141

6.3 Powder Coating 142

6.4 An Example: Automotive Coatings 147

6.4.1 Electrodeposition 147

6.4.2 The Automotive Coating Buildup 150

6.5 Network Formation Assessment 151

References 152

Further Reading 152

7 Physical–Chemical Aspects 155

7.1 Intermolecular and Mesoscopic Interactions 155

7.1.1 Intermolecular Interactions 155

7.1.2 Mesoscopic Interactions: Continuum Aspects 159

7.1.3 Lifshitz Theory 164

7.1.4 The Derjaguin Approximation 166

7.1.5 Mesoscopic Interactions: Molecular Aspects 167

7.2 Polymer Solubility 170

7.3 Interfacial Aspects 173

7.3.1 Surface Thermodynamics 173

7.3.2 Representative Behavior 178

7.3.3 Wetting of Ideal Surfaces 181

7.3.4 Estimating Surface Helmholtz Energy 184

7.3.5 Wetting of Real Surfaces 189

7.4 Dispersions 193

7.5 Emulsions 196

7.5.1 Basic Types of Emulsions 196

7.5.2 The HLB Concept 198

7.6 Coagulation Kinetics 202

7.6.1 Unhindered Coagulation 202

7.6.2 Hindered Coagulation 204

7.7 Self-assembly 207

7.7.1 SCF Computations 207

7.7.2 An Example: Surfactant Modeling 209

7.7.3 Another Example: Fluorine Segregation 212

7.8 Final Remarks 213

References 213

Further Reading 219

8 Chemical and Morphological Characterization 221

8.1 The Need for Characterization 221

8.2 IR and Raman Spectroscopy 222

8.3 NMR 227

8.4 Functional Group Analysis 236

8.5 XPS, SIMS, and LEIS 239

8.6 SEC 241

8.7 MALDI–MS 242

8.8 XRD 245

8.9 Optical Microscopy 250

8.9.1 Phase Contrast Microscopy 253

8.9.2 Fluorescence Microscopy 254

8.9.3 Confocal Scanning Microscopy 254

8.9.4 Polarized Light Microscopy 255

8.10 Electron Microscopy 256

8.10.1 TEM 256

8.10.2 SEM 259

8.10.3 STEM 260

8.10.4 Sample Preparation and Related Issues 260

8.11 Surface Probe Microscopy 262

8.12 Thickness and Beyond 265

8.13 Final Remarks 266

References 266

Further Reading 271

9 Thermal and Mechanical Characterization 273

9.1 Thermal Characterization 273

9.1.1 DSC 273

9.1.2 TGA 277

9.2 Permeability–Diffusivity–Solubility Analysis 278

9.3 Mechanical Constitutive Behavior 285

9.3.1 Analogous Models 288

9.3.2 Generalization: The Boltzmann Superposition Principle 291

9.3.3 Dynamic Response 293

9.3.4 The Time–Temperature Equivalence 296

9.3.5 The Free Volume and Other Approaches 297

9.4 A Brief Review of Experimental Data 300

9.4.1 Local and Cooperative Processes 301

9.4.2 Chain Motion 303

9.4.3 Mechanisms in Partially Crystalline Materials 306

9.5 Mechanical Characterization 307

9.5.1 DMTA 307

9.6 Hardness 312

9.6.1 Vickers, Knoop, Berkovich, and Brinell Hardness 312

9.6.2 Nanoindentation 314

9.6.3 Estimating the Stress–Strain Curve 315

9.6.4 Empirical Hardness Tests 316

9.7 Internal Stress Analysis 317

9.8 Adherence 319

9.8.1 Thermodynamic Considerations 319

9.8.2 Thermomechanical Considerations: Monoliths 323

9.8.3 Thermomechanical Considerations: Bimaterials 330

9.8.4 Coating Adherence 334

9.8.5 Testing Coating Adherence 337

9.8.6 Practical Tests 341

9.9 Final Remarks 342

References 342

Further Reading 345

10 Rheological Aspects 347

10.1 The Importance of Rheology 347

10.2 Rheological Characterization 348

10.2.1 Hydrodynamic Interactions 352

10.2.2 Dissolvable Polymers 359

10.3 Rheological Control of Paints 362

10.3.1 Powder Coatings 362

10.3.2 Thickening in Waterborne Paints 363

10.4 Viscosity of Paints During Curing 366

References 368

Further Reading 370

11 Appearance 371

11.1 Defects 371

11.2 The Characterization of Color 379

11.2.1 Light Sources 380

11.2.2 Color Sensing, Perception, and Quantification 381

11.2.3 Scattering, Absorption, and Color 384

11.2.4 Addition and Subtraction Systems 387

11.2.5 Color Tolerancing 391

11.3 The Characterization of Feel or Haptic Property 393

11.3.1 QDA of Haptic Coatings: An Example 394

References 397

Further Reading 398

12 Electrically Conductive Coatings 399

12.1 Typical Applications 399

12.2 Electrical Conductivity Measurements 401

12.3 Intrinsically Conductive Polymers 403

12.3.1 Some Conductivity Theory 406

12.3.2 Simple Band Theory 407

12.3.3 Doping 413

12.3.4 Hopping 416

12.4 An Example: P3HT/PCBM Photovoltaics 418

12.5 Conductive Composites 423

12.5.1 A Glimpse of Percolation Theory 423

12.5.2 Other Approaches 428

12.5.3 The Influence of Aspect Ratio 430

12.5.4 Conductive Particles 431

12.6 Some Examples of Conductive Composite Coatings 434

References 438

Further Reading 441

13 Marine Anti-fouling Coatings 443

13.1 Marine Biofouling 443

13.2 Evolution of Marine Coatings toward Green Anti-fouling Approaches 445

13.3 Principles for Preventing Adhesion or Promoting Detachment of Biofoulants 448

13.4 Nontoxic, Non-biocide-release Anti-fouling Coatings 451

13.4.1 Detachment of Biofoulants 451

13.4.1.1 Silicone-based Materials 453

13.4.1.2 Fluorine-based Materials 458

13.4.1.3 Combined Fluorine–Silicone-based Materials 461

13.4.2 Preventing Attachment of Biofoulants 462

13.4.2.1 PEG-based Materials 463

13.4.2.2 Self-assembled Monolayers 465

13.4.2.3 Other Approaches 466

13.5 Recent and Future Approaches 469

13.5.1 Amphiphilic Approach 469

13.5.2 Topographic Approach 472

13.6 Final Remarks 475

References 475

Further Reading 479

14 Self-replenishing and Self-healing Coatings 481

14.1 Self-healing and Self-replenishing: Scope and Limitations 481

14.2 Damage Recovery on Different Length Scales: Preemptive Healing 482

14.3 Approaches to Self-healing Coatings 486

14.3.1 Encapsulated Liquid Binders and Particles 487

14.3.2 Deformation and Recovery in Networks 489

14.3.3 Stress Relaxation in Reversible Networks 493

14.3.4 Reversible Covalent Networks 498

14.4 Industrial Practice 502

14.5 Approaches to Self-replenishing Coatings 504

14.5.1 Barrier and Corrosion Protection 505

14.5.2 Interfacial Bonding Between Dissimilar Materials 506

14.6 Self-replenishing Low Surface Energy Coatings 508

14.6.1 Low Surface Energy (Hydrophobic) Polymeric Coatings 509

14.6.2 Time Recovery of the Surface Self-replenishing 514

14.6.3 Surface-structured Superhydrophobic Polymeric Coatings 515

14.6.4 Further Remarks 521

14.7 Scenarios for Further Options 522

14.7.1 Residual Network Reactivity 522

14.7.2 Segregation of Interactive Chain Ends 523

14.7.3 Multilayer and Graded Coatings 524

14.8 Final Remarks 524

References 525

Further Reading 531

15 What’s Next 533

15.1 Generic Problems and Challenges 533

15.2 What Else? 535

15.3 What’s Next? 537

References 538

Appendix A: Units, Physical Constants, and Conversion Factors 541

Basic and Derived SI Units 541

Physical Constants 541

Conversion Factors for Non-SI Units 542

Prefixes 542

Greek Alphabet 542

Standard Values 543

Appendix B: Data 545

Index 549