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Multifunctional Nanocomposites for Energy and Environmental Applications

Multifunctional Nanocomposites for Energy and Environmental Applications

Zhanhu Guo (Editor), Yuan Chen (Editor), Na Luna Lu (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-34249-5

Jan 2018

704 pages

$324.99

Description

Focusing on real applications of nanocomposites and nanotechnologies for sustainable development, this book shows how nanocomposites can help to solve energy and environmental problems, including a broad overview of energy-related applications and a unique selection of environmental topics.
Clearly structured, the first part covers such energy-related applications as lithium ion batteries, solar cells, catalysis, thermoelectric waste heat harvesting and water splitting, while the second part provides unique perspectives on environmental fields, including nuclear waste management and carbon dioxide capture and storage.
The result is a successful combination of fundamentals for newcomers to the field and the latest results for experienced scientists, engineers, and industry researchers.

Contents to Volume 1

Preface xiii

1 Introduction to Nanocomposites 1
Xingru Yan and Zhanhu Guo

References 4

2 Advanced Nanocomposite Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries 7
Jiurong Liu, Shimei Guo, Chenxi Hu, Hailong Lyu, Xingru Yan, and Zhanhu Guo

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Advanced Nanocomposites as Anode Materials for LIBs 8

2.2.1 Carbonaceous Nanocomposites 9

2.2.2 Carbon-Free Nanocomposites 15

2.3 Advanced Nanocomposites as Cathode Materials for LIBs 17

2.3.1 Traditional Cathode 18

2.3.1.1 Lithium Transition Metal Oxides 19

2.3.1.2 Vanadium Oxide 19

2.3.1.3 Lithium Phosphates 20

2.3.2 Advanced Nanocomposites as Cathode Materials 21

2.3.2.1 Coating 21

2.3.2.2 Composite with Carbon Nanotubes of Graphene 24

2.3.2.3 Doping 26

References 27

3 Carbon Nanocomposites in Electrochemical Capacitor Applications 33
Long Chen, LiliWu, and Jiahua Zhu

3.1 Introduction 33

3.2 Working Principle of Electrochemical Capacitor 34

3.2.1 Electric Double Layer Capacitor 34

3.2.2 Pseudocapacitor 35

3.3 Characterization Techniques for Supercapacitor 36

3.3.1 Electrode Preparation and Testing Cell Assembling 36

3.3.1.1 Two-Electrode Method 36

3.3.1.2 Three-Electrode Method 37

3.3.2 Selection of Electrolyte 37

3.3.3 Energy Storage Property Evaluation 38

3.3.3.1 Capacitance 38

3.3.3.2 Energy Density and Power Density 39

3.3.3.3 Stability 40

3.4 State-of-Art Carbon Nanocomposite Electrode 41

3.4.1 Design Principles of Advanced Electrodes 41

3.4.1.1 Electrical Conductivity 41

3.4.1.2 Surface Area 42

3.4.1.3 Suitable Pore Size 42

3.4.2 Carbon/Carbon Nanocomposites 42

3.4.2.1 Graphene/CNTs 43

3.4.2.2 Graphene/Carbon Black 46

3.4.2.3 Porous Carbon/CNTs 46

3.4.3 Carbon/Metal Oxide Nanocomposites 47

3.4.3.1 Graphene/Metal Oxide 47

3.4.3.2 CNTs/Metal Oxide 49

3.4.3.3 Porous Carbon/Metal Oxide 51

3.4.4 Carbon/Conductive Polymer Nanocomposites 52

3.4.4.1 Graphene/Conductive Polymer 52

3.4.4.2 CNTs/Conductive Polymer 54

3.4.4.3 Porous Carbon/Conductive Polymer 57

3.4.4.4 Ternary Structured Nanocomposites 57

3.5 Summary 58

References 58

4 Application of Nanostructured Electrodes in Halide Perovskite Solar Cells and Electrochromic Devices 67
Qinglong Jiang, Xiaoqiao Zeng, Le Ge, Xiangyi Luo, and Lilin He

4.1 Application of Nanostructured Electrodes for Halide Perovskite Solar Cells 67

4.1.1 Introduction 67

4.1.2 Halide Perovskite Material 67

4.1.3 Halide Perovskite Solar Cells 68

4.1.3.1 HTM Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells 69

4.1.3.2 Cathodes 69

4.1.4 Planar Structure Photoanodes for Perovskite Solar Cell 71

4.1.5 Nanostructured Electrodes for Perovskite Solar Cell 71

4.1.5.1 Mesoscopic Nanoparticles for Perovskite Solar Cells 71

4.1.5.2 3D Nanowires for Perovskite Solar Cells 71

4.1.6 Current Challenges for Halide Perovskite Solar Cell 74

4.1.6.1 Lead and Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cell 74

4.1.6.2 Stability 75

4.1.6.3 Summary 75

4.2 Functionalized Nanocomposites for Low Energy Consuming Optoelectronic Electrochromic Device 75

4.2.1 Electrochromism and Electrochromic Materials 75

4.2.2 Electrochromic Device 76

4.2.3 Nanostructured Electrodes for EC Devices 77

4.2.3.1 Nanotube 77

4.2.3.2 Nanowires 78

4.2.3.3 Nanoparticles 78

4.2.3.4 Conductive Nanobeads 79

4.2.4 Current Challenges in Electrochromism 82

4.3 Conclusion 82

References 83

5 Perovskite Solar Cell 91
Erkin Shabdan, Blake Hanford, Baurzhan Ilyassov, Kadyrzhan Dikhanbayev, and Nurxat Nuraje

5.1 Introduction 91

5.2 Properties and Characteristics 92

5.2.1 Unit Cell 93

5.2.2 Madelung Constant and Lattice Energy 95

5.2.3 Phase Transition 95

5.2.4 Physical Properties 95

5.3 Solar Cell Application 97

5.3.1 Basic Solar Cell Operation 98

5.3.2 Fabrication of Perovskite Solar Cells 99

5.3.3 Stability of the Perovskite Material 104

5.3.4 Temperature Effects on Perovskite Material 106

5.3.5 Flexible Perovskite Materials 106

5.3.6 Perovskite Solar Cell Performance 107

5.4 Conclusion 108

References 109

6 Nanocomposite Structures Related to Electrospun Nanofibers for Highly Efficient and Cost-Effective Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 113
Xiaojing Ma, Fan Zheng, Yong Zhao, XiaoxuWang, Zhengtao Zhu, and Hao Fong

6.1 Introduction of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 113

6.1.1 Solar Energy Absorption 114

6.1.2 Electron Transport in Photoanode 114

6.1.3 Dye Regeneration 115

6.2 Composites of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Electrospun TiO2 Nanofibers as Highly Efficient Photoanodes 116

6.3 Electrospun TiC/C Composite Nano-felt Surface Decorated with Pt Nanoparticles as a Cost-Effective Counter Electrode 121

6.4 Concluding Remarks 129

Acknowledgments 130

References 130

7 Colloidal Synthesis of Advanced Functional Nanostructured Composites and Alloys via Laser Ablation-Based Techniques 135
Sheng Hu and Dibyendu Mukherjee

7.1 Introduction 135

7.1.1 Conventional Routes for Synthesizing NMs 135

7.1.2 Laser Ablation Synthesis in Solution (LASiS) 136

7.1.3 Laser Ablation Synthesis in Solution-Galvanic Replacement Reaction (LASiS-GRR) 138

7.1.4 Description of the LASiS/LASiS-GRR Setup 139

7.1.5 Applications of LASiS/LASiS-GRR for the Synthesis of Functional NCs and NAs 140

7.2 Synthesis of PtCo/CoOx NCs via LASiS-GRR as ORR/OER Bifunctional Electrocatalysts 141

7.2.1 Mechanistic Picture of LASiS-GRR 141

7.2.2 Structure and Composition Analysis for the PtCo/CoOx NCs 142

7.2.3 Investigation of ORR/OER Catalytic Activities 146

7.3 Synthesis of Pt-Based Binary and Ternary NAs as ORR Electrocatalysts for PEMFCs 148

7.3.1 PtCo NAs Synthesized with Different Pt Salt Concentrations 148

7.3.2 PtCo NAs Synthesized with Different pH Conditions 151

7.3.3 Synthesis of Pt-Based Ternary NAs 153

7.3.4 Investigation of ORR Electrocatalytic Activities 156

7.4 Synthesis of Hybrid CoOx/N-DopedGONCs as Bifunctional ORR Electrocatalysts/Supercapacitors 159

7.5 Conclusion and Future Directions 166

References 168

8 Thermoelectric Nanocomposite for Energy Harvesting 173
Ehsan Ghafari, Frederico Severgnini, Seyedali Ghahari, Yining Feng, Eu Jin Lee, Chaoyi Zhang, Xiaodong Jiang, and Na Lu

8.1 Introduction 173

8.2 Fundamental of Thermoelectric Effect 176

8.2.1 Seebeck Effect 176

8.2.2 Thermal Conductivity 179

8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity 181

8.2.4 Figure of Merit 181

8.3 Historical Perspective of Thermoelectric Materials Development 182

8.3.1 Early Discovery ofThermoelectricity 182

8.3.2 TE Devices in Post-90 182

8.4 Thermoelectric Nanocomposites andTheir Processing Methods 185

8.4.1 Bismuth Telluride, PbTe, SbTe, Etc. 185

8.4.2 Emerging Materials: Silicides and Nitrides 187

8.4.3 SiGe and Other RTG Materials 189

8.4.4 Oxide 190

8.4.4.1 n-Type Oxide ZnO-Based Materials 190

8.4.4.2 p-Type Oxide 191

8.5 Thermoelectric Device Design and Characterizations 192

8.5.1 Device Physics and Calculation 192

8.5.2 TE Device Fabrication and Its Applications 194

References 197

9 Graphene Composite Catalysts for Electrochemical Energy Conversion 203
GangWu and Ping Xu

9.1 Introduction 203

9.1.1 Graphene Catalysts 203

9.1.2 Applications for Energy Conversion 205

9.1.3 Challenge for Oxygen Electrocatalysis 206

9.2 Preparation of Graphene Catalysts 207

9.3 Graphene Catalysts for Energy Conversion 211

9.3.1 Reduced Graphene Oxide Catalysts 211

9.3.2 Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Composite Catalysts from Graphitization 216

9.3.3 Bifunctional Graphene Composite Catalysts 221

9.4 Summary and Perspective 223

Acknowledgments 223

References 223

10 Electrochromic Materials and Devices: Fundamentals and Nanostructuring Approaches 231
DongyunMa, JinminWang, HuigeWei, and Zhanhu Guo

10.1 Introduction 231

10.2 Notes on History and Early Applications 232

10.3 Electrochromic Materials and Devices 233

10.3.1 Overview of Electrochromic Materials 233

10.3.1.1 Transition Metal Oxides 233

10.3.1.2 Prussian Blue and Transition Metal Hexacyanometallates 237

10.3.1.3 Conducting Polymers 237

10.3.1.4 Viologens 239

10.3.1.5 Transition Metal Coordination Complexes 240

10.3.1.6 Others 240

10.3.2 Constructions of Electrochromic Devices 241

10.4 Performance Parameters of Electrochromic Materials and Device 242

10.4.1 Contrast Ratio 242

10.4.2 Response Time 242

10.4.3 Coloration Efficiency 243

10.4.4 Cycle Life 243

10.5 Application of Nanostructures in Electrochromic Materials and Devices 243

10.5.1 Nanoparticles 244

10.5.2 One-Dimensional (1D) Nanostructures 247

10.5.3 Two-Dimensional (2D) Nanostructures 251

10.5.4 Nanocomposites 255

10.6 Conclusions and Perspective 258

References 259

11 Nanocomposite Photocatalysts for Solar Fuel Production from CO2 and Water 271
Huilei Zhao and Ying Li

11.1 Introduction 271

11.2 Overview of Principles and Photocatalysts for CO2 Photoreduction 271

11.3 Experimental Apparatus and Methods for CO2 Photoreduction 273

11.3.1 Experimental System of Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction 273

11.3.2 Description of the DRIFTS System 274

11.4 Innovative TiO2 Materials Design for Promoted CO2 Photoreduction to Solar Fuels 275

11.4.1 Mixed-Phase Crystalline TiO2 for CO2 Photoreduction 275

11.4.1.1 Materials Synthesis and Characterization 276

11.4.1.2 Photocatalytic Activity of CO2 Photoreduction 277

11.4.2 TiO2 with Engineered Exposed Facets 278

11.4.2.1 Materials Synthesis and Characterization 279

11.4.2.2 Photocatalytic Activity of CO2 Photoreduction 280

11.4.2.3 Mechanism Investigation 282

11.4.3 Oxygen-Deficient TiO2 for CO2 Photoreduction 282

11.4.4 Cu/TiO2 with Different Cu Valances 286

11.4.4.1 Material Synthesis and Characterizations 286

11.4.4.2 Photocatalytic Activity of CO2 Photoreduction 286

11.4.4.3 Mechanism Investigation 287

11.4.5 TiO2 Modified with Enhanced CO2 Adsorption 289

11.4.5.1 MgO/TiO2 289

11.4.5.2 LDO/TiO2 295

11.4.5.3 Hybrid TiO2 with MgAl(LDO) 297

11.5 Conclusions 299

References 300

Contents to Volume 2

Preface xiii

12 The Applications of Nanocomposite Catalysts in Biofuel Production 309
Xiaokun Yang, Kan Tang, Akkrum Nasr, and Hongfei Lin

12.1 Introduction 309

12.2 Bio-Gasoline 311

12.2.1 Alcohols and Polyols 312

12.2.2 Carbohydrates 312

12.2.3 Lignocellulosic Biomass 316

12.2.4 Lipids and Lactones 318

12.2.5 Lactones 320

12.3 Bio-Jet Fuels 320

12.3.1 Bio-Jet Fuels from Carbohydrates 322

12.3.1.1 Sugars 322

12.3.1.2 Hemicellulose/Cellulose 322

12.3.2 Lignin 326

12.3.3 Bio-Jet Fuels from Lignocellulose-Derived Platform Chemicals 326

12.3.3.1 Noble Metal on Porous Support 326

12.3.3.2 Bimetallic Nanocatalysts 329

12.3.4 Other Renewable Biomass Feedstock 332

12.4 Renewable Diesel Fuel 333

12.4.1 Hemicellulose/Cellulose 333

12.4.2 Lignocellulose Derivative Platforms 336

12.4.3 Plant Oils/Fatty Acids 337

12.5 Conclusion 340

References 340

Contents to Volume 1 vii

13 Photocatalytic Nanomaterials for the Energy and Environmental Application 353
Zuzeng Qin, Tongming Su, and Hongbing Ji

13.1 Introduction 353

13.2 Preparation of Photocatalytic Nanomaterials 354

13.2.1 Solid-State Method 355

13.2.2 PrecipitationMethod 355

13.2.3 Hydrothermal Method 355

13.2.4 Sol–Gel Method 356

13.2.5 Solvothermal Method 356

13.2.6 Other PreparationMethods 356

13.3 Application of Photocatalytic Nanomaterials in the Energy 357

13.3.1 Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol 357

13.3.1.1 Different Kinds of Catalysts 358

13.3.1.2 Reaction Mechanism 364

13.3.2 Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Formate 365

13.3.2.1 Different Kinds of Catalysts 365

13.3.2.2 Reaction Mechanism 367

13.3.3 Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methane 368

13.3.3.1 Different Kinds of Catalysts 368

13.3.3.2 Reaction Mechanism 370

13.3.4 Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide 373

13.3.4.1 Different Kinds of Catalysts 373

13.3.4.2 Reaction Mechanism 374

13.3.5 Photocatalytic Reactor for CO2 Reduction 376

13.4 Application of Photocatalytic Nanomaterials in the Environment 381

13.4.1 Photocatalysts for Degradation of Organic Pollutant 382

13.4.2 Reaction Mechanism 386

13.4.3 Photocatalytic Reactor for Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutant 387

13.5 Conclusion and Prospect 390

Acknowledgments 391

References 391

14 Role of Interfaces at Nano-Architectured Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Production fromWater Splitting 403
Rui Peng and ZiliWu

14.1 Introduction 403

14.2 Basic Principles of Hydrogen Generation from Photocatalytic Water Splitting 405

14.2.1 Main Processes of Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation 405

14.2.2 Approaches for Enhancement of Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Efficiency 408

14.2.2.1 Sacrificial Reagent 408

14.2.2.2 Cocatalyst 409

14.3 Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation System Composing Functions of Interface at Nano-Architectures 410

14.3.1 Metal–Semiconductor Interfaces 410

14.3.1.1 Schottky Barrier 410

14.3.1.2 Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production 414

14.3.2 Semiconductor–Semiconductor Interfaces 420

14.3.2.1 Semiconductor p–n Junction System 420

14.3.2.2 Non- p–n Heterojunction Semiconductor System 423

14.4 Summary and Prospects 427

Acknowledgments 428

References 428

15 Nanostructured Catalyst for Small Molecule Conversion 439
Zhongyuan Huang, Jinbo Zhao, Haixiang Song, Yafei Kuang, and ZheWang

15.1 Supported 0D Structure 439

15.2 Unsupported 1D Nanostructures 445

15.3 Hierarchical Supportless Nanostructures 453

References 463

16 Rational Heterostructure Design for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting 467
Shaohua Shen,MengWang, and Xiangyan Chen

16.1 Introduction 467

16.1.1 Fundamentals 467

16.1.2 Efficiency Evaluation 469

16.1.3 Materials for PhotoelectrochemicalWater Splitting 470

16.2 TiO2- and ZnO-Based Heterostructures 471

16.2.1 Quantum Dot (QD) Sensitization 471

16.2.2 Plasmonic Modification 474

16.2.3 Cocatalyst Decoration 479

16.2.4 Conductive MaterialModification 482

16.3 ��-Fe2O3-Based Heterostructures 483

16.3.1 Semiconductor Heterojunctions 485

16.3.2 Nanotextured Conductive Substrates 489

16.3.3 Surface Passivation 492

16.3.4 Cocatalyst Decoration 494

16.4 WO3- and BiVO4-Based Heterostructures 497

16.4.1 Coupling with Other Semiconductors 498

16.4.2 Coupling with Oxygen Evolution Catalysts 501

16.5 Cu2O- and CuO-Based Heterostructures 504

16.5.1 Cu2O and CuO Photocathodes 504

16.5.2 Heterostructure Design 504

16.6 Other Metal Oxide-Based Heterostructures 509

16.7 Summary and Perspectives 510

16.7.1 Mechanism Investigation 510

16.7.2 Construction of New Heterostructures 511

16.7.3 Tandem Cell for Overall PECWater Splitting 511

Acknowledgments 511

References 512

17 Layered Double Hydroxide-Derived NOx Storage and Reduction Catalysts for Vehicle NOx Emission Control 527
Tianshan Xue,Wanlin Gao, XueyiMei, Yuhan Cui, and QiangWang

17.1 Introduction 527

17.1.1 Harm of Vehicle Exhausts 527

17.1.2 NOx Treatment Technology for Vehicle Exhausts 527

17.1.3 Chemical Constituent and Structure of LDHs 529

17.2 Mechanism of NOx Storage on LDH-Derived Catalysts 530

17.3 The Influence of LDH Chemical Composition on NSR 531

17.4 The Influence of Other Key Parameters 533

17.4.1 The Influence of Calcination Temperature 533

17.4.2 The Influence of Base Metal Loading 534

17.4.3 The Influence of Noble Metal Loading 535

17.5 Conclusions 537

References 538

18 Applications of Nanomaterials in NuclearWaste Management 543
Yawen Yuan, HuaWang, Shifeng Hou, and Deying Xia

18.1 Introduction 543

18.2 Applications of Nanomaterials in Removal of Radionuclides from RadioactiveWastes 544

18.2.1 Graphene-Related Nanomaterials 545

18.2.2 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 548

18.2.3 Magnetic Nanoparticles 549

18.2.4 Silver-Related Nanomaterials for I− Removal 551

18.2.5 Ion Exchange Nanomaterials 553

18.2.6 Mesoporous Silica 554

18.2.7 Other Nanomaterials 556

18.3 Conclusion and Perspectives 557

References 560

19 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Polymer Nanocomposites 567
Xingru Yan, Licheng Xiang, Qingliang He, Junwei Gu, Jing Dang, Jiang Guo, and Zhanhu Guo

19.1 Introduction 567

19.2 Criteria to Evaluate the Shielding Effectiveness 571

19.2.1 Conductive ShieldingMaterials with Negligible Magnetic Property 571

19.2.2 Conductive Shielding Materials with Magnetic Property 573

19.2.3 Theoretical Analysis 574

19.2.3.1 Magnetic Loss 574

19.2.3.2 Eddy Current Loss 574

19.2.3.3 Magnetic Hysteresis Loss 574

19.2.3.4 Residual Loss 574

19.3 Why EMI Shielding Polymer Nanocomposites? 575

19.3.1 Carbon-Based Nanofillers 575

19.3.2 Metal-Based Nanofillers 583

19.3.3 Conductive Polymer-Based Nanofillers 590

19.3.4 Other Nanofillers 593

19.4 Conclusion and Perspective 593

References 594

20 Mussel-Inspired Nanocomposites: Synthesis and Promising Applications in Environmental Fields 603
Lu Shao, Xiaobin Yang, ZhenxingWang, and Libo Zhang

20.1 Introduction 603

20.2 Preparation, Structure, Mechanism, and Properties of Mussel-Inspired PDA 605

20.2.1 Polymerization Conditions and Process 605

20.2.2 Possible Structures and Adhesion Mechanisms 609

20.2.3 Surface Modification Methods Based on PDA 615

20.2.4 Other Physicochemical Properties of PDA 622

20.2.4.1 Good Acid Resistance and Poor Alkaline Resistance 622

20.2.4.2 Ultraviolet Resistance 623

20.2.4.3 Carbon Precursor 624

20.3 Mussel-Inspired Materials forWastewater Treatment 626

20.3.1 Mussel-Inspired SpecialWettable Materials for Oil/Water Separation 626

20.3.1.1 PDA-Based Nanoparticles 627

20.3.1.2 PDA-Based Textiles 628

20.3.1.3 PDA-Based Foams 628

20.3.1.4 PDA-Based Membranes 631

20.3.2 Mussel-Inspired Adsorbents for Removal of Heavy Metal, Organic Pollutants, and Bacterial fromWater 633

20.3.2.1 Pure PDA Nanoparticles 633

20.3.2.2 Magnetic Core–Shell Nanoparticles 633

20.3.2.3 PDA Compound with Lamellar Structure 634

20.3.2.4 Mussel-Inspired Adsorbents Based on Other Inorganic Materials 637

20.3.2.5 PDA-Modified Porous Polymer Membrane 638

20.3.3 Mussel-Inspired Catalysts for Degradation of Organic Pollutants 640

20.4 Outlook 643

References 644

Index 651