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Innovation Processes in Agro-Ecological Transitions in Developing Countries

Innovation Processes in Agro-Ecological Transitions in Developing Countries

Ludovic Temple (Editor), Eveline M. F. W. Compaore Sawadogo (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-52259-1

Apr 2018, Wiley-ISTE

198 pages

$96.99

Description

This book investigates the interactions between different shifts in innovation models. It underlines ecological conditions and production intensification in the agriculture sector. In total six innovation processes were analyzed in different countries such as Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Haiti, Madagascar and Senegal. The similarities between these case studies are that they all demonstrate that sustainable and sufficient network between actors of the innovation are particularly useful for the development of agricultural innovation systems. The different papers demonstrate that there is a need for more commitment of public policy in innovation processes.

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Foreword xi
Michel GRIFFON

Introduction xiii
Ludovic TEMPLE and Eveline M.F.W COMPAORÉ SAWADOGO

Chapter 1 Innovation Platforms as a Tool to Support Technological Change in the Agri-Food Sector in Developing Countries:A Case Study of the Plantain Value Chain in Côte d’Ivoire 1
Euphrasie C.M ANGBO-KOUAKOU, Ludovic TEMPLE, Syndhia MATHÉ and Alexandre ASSEMIEN

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Technological innovations in the Ivorian plantain sector 4

1.2.1 Development of plantain cultivar transfers 4

1.2.2 History of the WAAPP plantain program 5

1.2.3 Innovation platform features: objectives, composition and governance 6

1.3 Conceptual and methodological framework 10

1.3.1 SIS: framework for analyzing technological changes based on the strategies of stakeholders in agri food chains 10

1.3.2 Conceptualization of the four components of an AIS 11

1.3.3 Methodological and analytical framework 13

1.4 Results 17

1.4.1 Functionality of Côte d’Ivoire’s PIPs 17

1.4.2 Reorganization of the AIS components by PIPs 17

1.4.3 Redirecting technological trajectories in the plantain sector in Côte d’Ivoire 18

1.5 Discussion of the functionalities of the system and IAs 20

1.5.1 Functionalities of the agricultural SIS for the plantain sector in Côte d’Ivoire 20

1.5.2 IAs and changes 21

1.5.3 Renewal of technological innovation processes 21

1.6 Conclusion 22

1.7 Bibliography 23

Chapter 2 Biotechnological Cotton in Burkina Faso:An Innovation Trajectory in a Development Context 29
Eveline M.F.W COMPAORÉ SAWADOGO

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 The rise of biotechnological cotton within a context of persistent development problems 33

2.3 Institutional mechanisms that led to the adoption of biotechnological cotton innovation in Burkina Faso 34

2.4 Identification of the actors and their place in the Bt innovation trajectory 35

2.4.1 Cotton producers 35

2.4.2 Cotton industries 36

2.4.3 Cotton researchers 36

2.4.4 Civil society 37

2.4.5 The government of Burkina Faso 37

2.5 Stabilization of the Bt cotton adoption process 42

2.6 Discussion and conclusion on the failure of Bt cotton in Burkina Faso 43

2.7 Bibliography 45

Chapter 3 Emergence of a Biofuel Innovation System and Production in Burkina Faso: An Analysis of the Determinants and Challenges for its Development 51
Salif DERRA and Ludovic TEMPLE

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Methodology 52

3.2.1 Analytical framework 52

3.2.2 Data collection 55

3.3 Defining the biofuel innovation and production system 56

3.4 Incentives for the emergence of the actor system 58

3.4.1 Biofuel support policies 58

3.4.2 Increased funding for biofuels research 59

3.4.3 Financing of biofuel production projects 60

3.5 Functional analysis of the biofuel innovation and production system 60

3.5.1 Creation of a platform for capacity-building 60

3.5.2 Functioning of the biofuels sector in Burkina Faso 61

3.5.3 Biofuel development models 62

3.6 The failures of the biofuel innovation and production system 63

3.6.1 Insufficient knowledge on the consequences of technological choices 63

3.6.2 Poor interaction within the actor network 64

3.6.3 Lack of regulatory frameworks and standards 64

3.6.4 Apprehension from national and international civil society 65

3.7 Conclusion 65

3.8 Bibliography 66

Chapter 4 Trajectories of Innovation in Conservation Agriculture at Lake Alaotra in Madagascar 71
Eric PENOT, Valentin FEVRE and Patricia FLODROPS

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 The problem 73

4.3 Methodology 75

4.4 Status report on the adoption of CA in 2013 76

4.5 Developments in farming practices and innovations in CA 79

4.6 A wide variety of growing systems among the early adopters 80

4.7 Learning, innovation co-design and IS 82

4.7.1 Learning and recombination of knowledge 82

4.7.2 Empirical example of an evolution towards co-construction of systems 82

4.7.3 Toward innovation comanagement 83

4.8 Contrasting behaviors after project shutdown 84

4.9 Conclusion 87

4.10 Bibliography 91

Chapter 5 Ecological Transition of an Innovation Model: Yam Seed Production in Haiti 95
James BOYER and Ludovic TEMPLE

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Conceptual and methodological frameworks 97

5.2.1 Yam production in Haiti 97

5.2.2 Methodology and data collection 97

5.2.3 A three-phase mechanism for collecting data and validating results 98

5.3 The diffusionist attempt to transfer Miniset technology in Haiti 100

5.3.1 Emergence of the Miniset technique in Haiti 100

5.3.2 Orientation based on external research and exogenous elements 100

5.3.3 The diffusionist model’s failed attempt at adapting 102

5.3.4 Co-constructing adoption: adapting the technology to green the process 104

5.4 From adoption results to the socioeconomic impacts of Miniset 107

5.4.1 Evolution of the adoption rate 107

5.4.2 Impact on production 107

5.5 Discussion of the conditions for changing an innovation model 109

5.5.1 Miniset: the failure of linear and diffusionist innovation models 109

5.5.2 Miniset: a positive contribution to agro-ecological innovation 110

5.5.3 Miniset: a reaffirmation of the importance of action research 111

5.6 Conclusion 111

5.7 Appendix: characteristics of surveyed areas 113

5.8 Bibliography 115

Chapter 6 Diversity of Innovation Processes in the Niayes Market Gardening System (Senegal): Between Conventional Intensification and Agro-Ecological Transition 117
Patrick DUGUÉ, Isabelle MICHEL, Victor KETTELA and Serge SIMON

6.1 Introduction 117

6.2 Theoretical position 119

6.3 Methodology 120

6.3.1 Context 120

6.3.2 Combination of methods 122

6.4 Results: diversity of technical innovation processes 124

6.4.1 Adoption and adaptation of an innovation from large capital-intensive farms: drip irrigation and electric pumping 124

6.4.2 An innovation process led by a development operator:the use of biopesticides and organic manure 125

6.4.3 Poorly visible innovations carried forward by market gardeners 128

6.5 Discussion 131

6.5.1 Recognizing the innovation capacities of farmers 131

6.5.2 Why should agronomists be interested in farming innovation? 132

6.5.3 How to support innovation processes? 135

6.6 Conclusion 136

6.7 Bibliography 137

Chapter 7 Food Challenges in Africa 141
Jean-Marc BOUSSARD

7.1 Food challenge in Africa 141

7.2 How to improve the food production capacity of sub-Saharan Africa 143

7.3 Difficulty in raising capital 145

7.4 Agricultural prices south of the Sahara 149

7.5 Reasons for agricultural price volatility in Africa 152

7.6 The “endogenous” causes of price instability 155

7.7 Conclusion and implications for agricultural policies 159

7.7.1 Improving infrastructure 160

7.7.2 Input subsidies 161

7.7.3 Price stabilization 163

7.8 Bibliography 165

List of Authors 167

Index 169