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Horticultural Reviews, Volume 45

Ian Warrington (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-43100-8 December 2017 504 Pages


Horticultural Reviews presents state-of-the-art reviews on topics in horticultural science and technology covering both basic and applied research. Topics covered include the horticulture of fruits, vegetables, nut crops, and ornamentals. These review articles, written by world authorities, bridge the gap between the specialized researcher and the broader community of horticultural scientists and teachers.

Contributors ix

Dedication: Jules Janick xiii
Ian Warrington

1. The Flowers of Fragaria × ananassa: Morphology, Response to Photoperiod, and Genetics of Induction 1
Andrew Petran and Emily Hoover

I. Introduction 2

II. Strawberry Growth, Reproduction, and Commercial Management 2

III. Inflorescence Architecture 13

IV. Genetics of Flower Induction 16

V. Conclusions 26

Literature Cited 27

2. Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS): An Emerging Technology for Horticulture 33
James A. Robbins

I. Introduction 35

II. Aircraft 36

III. Sensors and Data Processing 42

IV. Horticultural Applications 52

V. Challenges 61

VI. Conclusions 64

Literature Cited 64

3. Leaf Blackening: A Serious Impediment to Long]Term Cold Storage, Transport, and Extended Vase Life in Protea Cut Flowers 73
Eleanor W. Hoffman, Waafeka Vardien, Gerard Jacobs, and Nicole E. Windell

I. Introduction 74

II. Variation in Expression of Leaf Blackening 76

III. Physiological Causes of Leaf Blackening 80

IV. The Biochemical Mechanisms of Leaf Blackening 87

V. Control of Leaf Blackening 90

VI. Conclusions 99

Literature Cited 100

4. Sapota (Manilkara achras Forb.): Factors Influencing Fresh and Processed Fruit Quality 105
Babak Madani, Amin Mirshekari, Elhadi Yahia, and John B. Golding

I. Introduction 107

II. Nutritive Value 111

III. Physiological and Biochemical Changes During Fruit Maturation and Ripening 114

IV. Preharvest Effects on Postharvest Quality 120

V. Physiological Disorders 121

VI. Postharvest Diseases 122

VII. Postharvest Technology 123

VIII. Postharvest Treatments 126

IX. N on]Destructive Methods for Identifying Fruit Maturity and Quality 131

X. Processing 132

XI. Summary and Future Prospects 134

Literature Cited 136

5. The Citron (Citrus medica L.) in China 143
David Karp and Xulan Hu

I. Introduction 145

II. History and Culture 145

III. Nomenclature 147

IV. Current Citron Cultivation in China 148

V. Major Cultivars of Chinese Citron and Select Citron Hybrids 158

VI. Germplasm Status; Regional and Global Perspective 190

Literature Cited 192

6. Apple Rootstocks: History, Physiology, Management, and Breeding 197
Richard P. Marini and Gennaro Fazio

I. Introduction 198

II. History 199

III. Rootstock–Scion Interactions 204

IV. Stresses Influencing Rootstock Performance 225

V. Interstems 259

VI. Influence of Rootstock on Fruit Characteristics 262

VII. Genetics and Breeding 266

VIII. Rootstock Evaluation 277

Literature Cited 282

7. Canopy Growth and Development Processes in Apples and Grapevines: Responses to Temperature 313
Dennis H. Greer

I. Introduction 315

II. Phenology 316

III. Dormant Buds in Apple Trees and Grapevines 317

IV. Winter Chilling in Apple Trees and Grapevines 319

V. Budbreak and Shoot Development in Apple Trees and Grapevines 320

VI. Fruit Growth 332

VII. Biomass Partitioning 338

VIII. Photosynthesis and the Carbon Economy 340

IX. Abiotic Stress Effects on Canopy Physiology 349

X. Impact of Climate Change on Phenology 355

XI. Conclusions 357

Literature Cited 358

8. Organic Acids in Fruits: Metabolism, Functions and Contents 371
Robert P. Walker and Franco Famiani

I. Introduction 373

II. T he Function of the Flesh of Fruits and its Implication for their Organic Acid Contents 375

III. Acids that Contain a Benzene Ring: The Aromatic Acids 377

IV. T he Inter]Related Acids: Ascorbic, Oxalic, Tartaric, and Galacturonic 385

V. Fatty Acids 398

VI. Malic, Citric, and Metabolically Related Acids 399

VII. Conclusions 412

Literature Cited 413

Subject Index 431

Cumulative Subject Index 435

Cumulative Contributor Index 473