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Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference

Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference

Sandra E. Shumway (Editor), JoAnn M. Burkholder (Editor), Steven L. Morton (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-99469-6

May 2018, Wiley-Blackwell

696 pages

$236.99

Description

Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference provides basic information on harmful algal blooms (HAB) and references for individuals in need of technical information when faced with unexpected or unknown harmful algal events. Chapters in this volume will provide readers with information on causes of HAB, successful management and monitoring programs, control, prevention, and mitigation strategies, economic consequences of HAB, associated risks to human health, impacts of HAB on food webs and ecosystems, and detailed information on the most common HAB species.   

Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference will be an invaluable resource to managers, newcomers to the field, those who do not have easy or affordable access to scientific literature, and individuals who simply do not know where to begin searching for the information needed, especially when faced with novel and unexpected HAB events. 

Edited by three of the world's leading harmful algal bloom researchers and with contributions from leading experts, Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference will be a key source of information for this increasingly important topic.

List of Contributors xvii 

Acknowledgments xxi 

Introduction xxiii 

1 Causes of Harmful Algal Blooms 1
Patricia M. Glibert and JoAnn M. Burkholder  

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 “Getting There”: The Classic Perspective on Introduced Species and Links to Cultural Eutrophication 2

1.2.1 Introduced Species 2

1.2.2 Anthropogenically Introduced Nutrients 3

1.3 “Being There”: Blooms and Why They Succeed 5

1.3.1 Nutrient-Related HAB 5

1.3.2 Resource Ratios, Nutrient Stoichiometry, and Optimal Nutrient    Ratios 6

1.3.3 Diversity in Use of Forms of Nitrogen 9

1.3.4 Toxicity 10

1.3.5 Mixotrophy: Use of “Packaged” and Dissolved Particulate   Nutrients 12

1.3.6 Other Adaptations 13

1.4 “Staying There”: Links to Physical Structure and Climate 14

1.4.1 Physical Structure: Large-Scale and Small-Scale Natural Hydrological   Features 14

1.4.2 Physical Dynamics: Anthropogenic Hydrological Changes 15

1.4.3 Reinforcing Feedbacks 16

1.4.3.1 Trophic Disruptions 16

1.4.3.2 Biogeochemical Alterations 17

1.4.4 Climate Change 18

1.5 Conclusions 20

Acknowledgments 21 

References 21 

2 Detection and Surveillance of Harmful Algal Bloom Species and Toxins 39
Gregory J. Doucette, Linda K. Medlin, Pearse McCarron, and Philipp Hess  

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Organism Detection 41

2.2.1 Visual/Optical 41

2.2.1.1 Light Microscopy (LM)/Utermöhl’s 41

2.2.1.2 Light Microscopy/Flow Cytometry 41

2.2.1.3 In Vivo Fluorometry 42

2.2.1.4 Spectral   Absorbance/Spectroradiometry 43

 2.2.2 Molecular 43

 2.2.2.1 Whole Cell Format 44

 2.2.2.2 Cell-Free Format 47

 2.3 Toxin Detection 51

 2.3.1 In Vivo Assays 53

 2.3.1.1 Rat Bioassay 58

 2.3.1.2 Mouse Bioassay 58

 2.3.2 In Vitro Assays 59

 2.3.2.1 Functional Assays 60

 2.3.2.2 Structural Assays 66

 2.3.2.3 Biosensors 71

 2.3.3 Analytical Techniques 72

 2.3.3.1 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Optical Detection (UV or   FLD) 73

 2.3.3.2 Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and Liquid  Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) 75

 2.3.3.3 Other Analytical Methods: Capillary Electrophoresis (CE), Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF), and Laser Ablation    Electrospray Ionization (LAESI) 78

 2.3.3.4 Perspectives 79

 2.4 Autonomous, In Situ Technologies 80

 2.4.1 Environmental Sample Processor (McLane Research Laboratories) 81

 2.4.2 Imaging Flow Cytobot (McLane Research Laboratories) 83

 2.4.3 Optical Phytoplankton Discriminator (aka BreveBuster; Mote Marine   Laboratory) 84

 2.4.4 CytoBuoy (CytoBuoy b.v.) 85

 2.4.5 SPATT Passive Samplers 86

 2.5 Conclusions and Future Prospects 87

Disclaimer 89

References and Further Reading 89

3 Modeling Marine Harmful Algal Blooms: Current Status and Future Prospects 115
Kevin J. Flynn and Dennis J. McGillicuddy, Jr.

 3.1 Introduction 115

 3.2 Building Models to Describe Ecological Events 117

 3.3 Limitations to What Models Can Do, and Why 119

 3.3.1 Building Models 119

 3.3.2 Model Complexity 119

 3.3.3 The Need for Data 120

 3.3.4 Validating Models 121

 3.4 Modeling T-HAB and ED-HAB Events 121

 3.5 How Good Are Current HAB Models? 122

 3.6 Future Modeling of T-HAB and ED-HAB: Managing Expectations 128

 3.7 Improving Our Capabilities 129

 3.7.1 Changes in the Biological–Modeling Interface 129

Acknowledgments 130

References 130

4 Harmful Algal Blooms and Shellfish 135
Leila Basti, Hélène Hégaret, and Sandra E. Shumway

 4.1 Introduction 135

 4.2 Major Shellfish Poisonings 136

 4.2.1 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) 136

 4.2.2 Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) 137

 4.2.3 Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) 138

 4.2.4 Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) 139

4.2.5 Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP) 139

4.3 Other Toxins: Pectenotoxins (PTX) and Yessotoxins (YTX) 140

4.4 Emerging Shellfish Poisonings 141

4.5 Toxin Uptake, Accumulation, and Depuration 142

4.6 Shellfish Contamination in North America 143

4.6.1 Bivalves 143

4.6.1.1 Paralytic Shellfish Contamination 143

4.6.1.2 Diarrheic Shellfish Contamination 149

4.6.1.3 Neurotoxic Shellfish Contamination 150

4.6.1.4 Amnesic Shellfish Contamination 151

4.6.2 Gastropods 154

4.6.3 Crustaceans 162

4.7 Impacts on Shellfish 163

4.8 Conclusions and Perspectives 164

References and Further Reading 167 

5 Vulnerabilities of Marine Mammals to Harmful Algal Blooms 191
Margaret H. Broadwater, Frances M. Van Dolah, and Spencer E. Fire  

5.1 Introduction 191

5.2 Overview of Algal Toxins 192

5.2.1 Brevetoxins 193

5.2.2 Ciguatoxins 199

5.2.3 Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins 200

5.2.4 Domoic Acid 201

5.2.5 Paralytic Shellfish Toxins 206

5.2.6 Other Algal and Cyanobacterial Toxins 209

5.3 Impacts of Algal Toxins Specific to Marine   Mammals 210

5.3.1 The Effects of Toxin Exposure Depend on Animal Physiology and Behavior 210

5.3.2 Emerging Issues: Non-acute and Multiple Toxin   Exposure 211

5.3.3 Prospects for Managing Impacts of HAB 211

5.4 Considerations for the Evaluation of HAB Toxins in Marine    Mammals 212

5.4.1 Sampling Marine Mammals for HAB Toxin Analysis 213

5.4.2 Priority Needs for Investigating HAB Toxin Involvement in Marine Mammal Morbidity and Mortality 214

Abbreviations 214 

References and Further Reading 215 

6 Interactions between Seabirds and Harmful Algal Blooms 223
Corinne M. Gibble and Brian A. Hoover  

6.1 Introduction 223

6.2 Historical Interactions between HAB and   Seabirds 224

6.2.1 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) 224

6.2.2 Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) 227

6.2.3 Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning 228

6.2.4 Akashiwo sanguinea 228

6.2.5 Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) 229

6.2.6 CyanoHAB 230

6.3 Improved Monitoring and Establishment of Causality 231

6.3.1 Coordinating Monitoring and Pathology to Confirm Relationships between HAB and Seabird Mortality 231

6.3.2 Seabirds as Biological Indicators 233

6.4 Implications for Conservation 234

References 235 

7 Food Web and Ecosystem Impacts of Harmful Algae 243
JoAnn M. Burkholder, Sandra E. Shumway, and Patricia M. Glibert

 7.1 Introduction 243

 7.2 Approaches, Pitfalls, Progress, and Goals 277

 7.3 High-Biomass Algal Blooms 279

 7.4 Emerging Recognition of the Roles of Allelochemicals 282

 7.4.1 Microalgae 283

 7.4.2 Thalloid Macroalgae 285

 7.4.3 Filamentous Mat-Forming Macroalgae 287

 7.5 Toxigenic Algae in Aquatic Food Webs 287

 7.5.1 Toxic Microcystis aeruginosa Blooms across North America 289

 7.5.2 Toxic Prymnesium parvum Blooms and Fish Communities in Two Texas Rivers 290

 7.5.3 Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia Blooms in Coastal Upwelling Areas 292

 7.5.4 Toxic Alexandrium Blooms in the Northeast 292

 7.5.5 Toxic Karenia brevis Blooms along the Florida Coast 293

 7.6 Ecosystem-Disruptive Algal Blooms 294

 7.7 Future Directions 295

Appendix A: Scientific Names for Organisms Listed by Common Name in This Chapter, Also Indicating Species Affected by Karenia brevis (Kb) 297

References and Further Reading 301

8 Assessing the Economic Consequences of Harmful Algal Blooms: A Summary of Existing Literature, Research Methods, Data, and Information Gaps 337
Charles M. Adams, Sherry L. Larkin, Porter Hoagland, and Brian Sancewich

 8.1 Introduction 337

 8.2 Overview 338

 8.3 Research Methodologies 338

 8.4 Sources and Types of Data 347

 8.5 Spatial and Temporal Scopes 348

 8.6 Nature of the Hazard 349

 8.7 Current Research Gaps 350

 8.8 Conclusion 351

Acknowledgments 351

References and Further Reading 351

9 Public Health and Epidemiology 355
Lynn M. Grattan, Joe Schumacker, Andrew Reich, and Sailor Holobaugh

 9.1 Introduction 355

 9.2 What Is Public Health and Epidemiology? 355

 9.3 HAB and Human Illness 356

 9.3.1 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) 357

 9.3.1.1 Exposure 357

 9.3.1.2 Clinical Symptoms 361

 9.3.1.3 Treatment 361

 9.3.2 Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) 361

 9.3.2.1 Exposure 361

 9.3.2.2 Clinical Syndrome 361

 9.3.2.3 Treatment 362

 9.3.3 Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) 362

 9.3.3.1 Exposure 362

 9.3.3.2 Clinical Illness 363

 9.3.3.3 Treatment 363

 9.3.4 Brevetoxin Inhalation Syndrome (BIS) 363

 9.3.4.1 Exposure 363

9.3.4.2 Clinical Illness 363

9.3.4.3 Treatment 363

9.3.5 Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) 363

9.3.5.1 Exposure 363

9.3.5.2 Clinical Syndrome 364

9.3.5.3 Treatment 364

9.3.6 Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) 364

9.3.6.1 Exposure 364

9.3.6.2 Clinical Illness 364

9.3.6.3 Treatment 365

9.3.7 Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP) 365

9.3.7.1 Exposure 365

9.3.7.2 Clinical Syndrome 366

9.3.7.3 Treatment 366

9.3.8 Toxic Cyanobacteria 366

9.3.8.1 Exposure 366

9.3.8.2 Clinical Syndromes 366

9.3.8.3 Treatment 366

9.4 The HAB Manager’s Role in Preventing HAB-Related Illnesses 367

9.4.1 HAB Management Exemplars 367

9.4.2 The Native American Perspective from Washington State, USA: Domoic Acid and Paralytic Shellfish Toxins 367

9.4.2.1 Background 367

9.4.2.2 Tribal Capacity and Inclusion 369

9.4.2.3 Lessons Learned 369

9.4.3 The Florida Department of Health Perspective 369

9.4.3.1 Harmful Algal Blooms 370

9.5 HAB-Related Stressors and Human Resilience 370

9.6 Conclusion 371

References and Further Reading 371 

10 Marine Biotoxin and Harmful Algae Monitoring and Management 377
Gregg W. Langlois and Steve L. Morton  

10.1 Introduction 377

10.2 Identifying Sampling Program Needs 383

10.3 Developing a Sampling Program for Shellfish   Monitoring 384

10.3.1 Shellfish Sampling Stations 384

10.3.2 Monitoring Shellfish Toxicity 386

10.4 Developing a Sampling Program for Phytoplankton Monitoring 388

10.4.1 Phytoplankton Sampling Stations 388

10.4.2 Monitoring Phytoplankton 389

10.5 Monitoring Other Fisheries 394

10.6 Novel Approaches and Advanced Tools to Enhance Monitoring Programs 396

10.6.1 Diversifying Program Participation: Volunteer   Monitors 396

10.6.2 Field Testing for Toxins: PSP and ASP 399

10.6.3 Screening Tests for Toxins: DSP and PSP 401

10.6.4 SPATT 401

10.6.5 Oceanographic Data 402

10.7 Management Considerations 408

10.7.1 Commercial Shellfish 408

10.7.2 Recreational Shellfishing 411

10.8 Phytoplankton Sampling Protocol Examples 413

10.9 HAB Forecasting Links 413

Acknowledgments 413 

References and Further Reading 413 

 11 Harmful Algal Bloom Education and Outreach 419
Mare Timmons, Mary Sweeney-Reeves, and Steve L. Morton

 11.1 Introduction 419

 11.2 K–12 Education 426

 11.3 Web-Based and Distance Learning Education 427

 11.4 Citizen Science 428

 11.4.1 Contributions of Citizen Science 429

 11.4.2 Connecting Citizen Science to Ocean Learning 431

 11.4.2.1 Safety 431

 11.4.2.2 Training Sessions 431

 11.5 Conclusion 432

  References and Further Reading 432

 12 Prevention, Control, and Mitigation of Harmful Algal Bloom Impacts on Fish, Shellfish, and  Human Consumers 435
Kevin G. Sellner and J.E. (Jack) Rensel

 12.1 Introduction 435

 12.2 HAB Prevention 435

 12.2.1 Aquaculture Site Selection or Relocation 435

 12.2.2 Nutrient Load Reductions 436

 12.2.3 Phytoplankton Mixing, Increasing Turbulence, and Decreasing Residence    Times

  (Mostly Freshwater Systems) 440

 12.2.4 Reducing HA Introductions 441

 12.3 Preventing and Reducing HAB Impacts on Shellfish and Fish 442

 12.3.1 Preventing Human and Animal Exposures 442

 12.3.1.1 Shellfish and Finfish Monitoring 442

 12.3.1.2 Depuration and Detoxification 444

 12.3.1.3 Food Processing 444

 12.3.1.4 Cooking 445

 12.3.1.5 Aerosols 445

 12.3.1.6 Medical Treatments 445

 12.4 HAB Controls 445

 12.4.1 Protections 445

 12.4.2 Biomass Removal 446

 12.4.3 Capping 446

 12.4.4 Nutrient Trapping in Sediments 446

 12.4.5 Reductions of Algal Resting Stages (Cysts) 446

 12.5 Mitigation of HAB 447

 12.5.1 Detection 447

 12.5.2 Chemical Additions 448

 12.5.3 Flocculation 451

 12.5.4 Barely Straw (Hordeum vulgare) 454

 12.5.5 Other Treatments 455

 12.5.5.1 UV Exposure 455

 12.5.5.2 Cavitation 455

 12.5.5.3 Ultrasound 455

 12.5.5.4 Electrolysis 456

 12.5.5.5 Hydraulics and Mixing 456

 12.5.5.6 Biological Controls 456

 12.6 Shellfish 458

 12.7 Fish Mariculture 459

 12.7.1 HAB Mitigation for Fish Mariculture 459

 12.7.2 Best Management Practices for Fish Mariculture Siting, Including HAB and Eutrophication Issues 460

12.7.2.1 Local Land Use 460

12.7.2.2 Plankton Monitoring and Water Quality Assessments 460

12.7.2.3 Physical Hydrographic Considerations 461

12.7.2.4 Vertical Mixing Considerations 461

12.7.3 Mitigation of HAB at Fish Mariculture Facilities 461

12.7.4 HAB Mitigation Methods for Fish Mariculture 462

12.7.4.1    Feeding and Handling Practices 462 

12.8 Conclusions 470

Acknowledgments 474 

References 474 

Further Reading 492 

13 Harmful Algae Introductions: Vectors of Transfer, Mitigation, and Management 493
Shauna Murray and Gustaaf Hallegraeff  

13.1 Summary 493

13.2 The Biogeographic Ranges of Harmful Algal Bloom Species 493

13.3 Vectors of Transfer 494

13.3.1 Natural Factors 494

13.3.2 Ballast Water 494

13.3.3 Translocation of Aquaculture Products 494

13.4 Molecular Evidence for Introductions of New Species to a Region 494

13.4.1 The Stalk-Forming Freshwater Fouling Diatom Didymosphenia geminata 495

13.4.2 Alexandrium pacificum and A. minutum in European and Japanese Waters 496

13.4.3 Gymnodinium catenatum in Australia and Europe 497

13.5 Prevention and Risk Reduction 498

13.5.1 Code of Practice on Translocation with Aquaculture Products 498

13.5.2 Warning for HAB in Ballast Water-Uptake Zones and When Translocating Aquaculture Products 498

13.5.3 Ballast Water Management 498

13.5.4 Other Precautionary Measures 500

13.6 Emergency Treatment Options 501

References 502 

14 Culture and Culture Collections 507
Gary H. Wikfors and Steve L. Morton  

14.1 Introduction 507

14.2 Step 1: Sampling the Environment 507

14.3 Step 2: Processing a Field Sample in the Laboratory to Confirm Presence of the Target Organism 509

14.4 Step 3: From Spark to Flame 511

14.5 Step 4: Long-Term Perpetuation of HAB Cultures 511

14.6 Epilogue 512

Further Reading 513 

15 Harmful Macroalgal Blooms in a Changing World: Causes, Impacts, and Management 515
Brian E. Lapointe, JoAnn M. Burkholder, and Kathryn L. Van Alstyne  

15.1 Introduction 515

15.2 Freshwater and Other Inland Macroalgae 516

15.3 Estuarine and Coastal Marine Macroalgae 519

15.4 Influences on Bloom Development 525

15.5 Nutrient Pollution 525

15.5.1 Sources 525

15.5.2 Indicators of Nutrient Pollution and Nutrient Sources 526

15.6 Uptake/Adsorption of Other Contaminants 526

15.7 Impacts on Human Health:  Macroalgae as Substrata for Pathogens 527

 15.8 Non-native Invasions 528

 15.9 Ecological and Ecosystem-Level Impacts 529

 15.9.1 Regime Shifts 530

 15.9.2 Freshwater Macroalgal HAB 532

 15.9.2.1 Filamentous Cyanobacteria 532

 15.9.2.2 Filamentous Green Algae 533

 15.9.3 Estuarine and Coastal Marine HAB 534

 15.1 Effects of Blooms on the Chemistry of the Oceans and the Atmosphere 535

 15.10.1 Changes to Carbonate Chemistry and pH 535

 15.10.2 Release of Materials and Chemicals into Seawater 536

 15.10.3 Release of Volatile Compounds 537

 15.11 Management Strategies 537

 15.12 Economic Impacts 539

 15.13 Recycling Macroalgae Biomass 541

 15.14 Forecast 542

References and Further Reading 542 

16 Harmful Algal Species Fact Sheets 561

Alexandrium 563
Allan D. Cembella

Amphidomataceae 575
Urban Tillmann  

Aureococcus anophagefferens Hargraves et Sieburth & Aureoumbra  lagunensis   DeYoe et Stockwell – Brown Tides 583
Christopher J. Gobler  

Ceratium furca (Ehrenberg) Claparede &   Lachmann 585
Steve L. Morton  

Chattonella marina 587
Carmelo R. Tomas  

Cochlodinium – Rust Tide 589
Christopher J. Gobler  

Cyanobacteria 591
JoAnn M. Burkholder, Christopher J. Gobler, and Judith M.   O’Neil

Dinophysis 597
Steve L. Morton  

Fibrocapsa japonica 599
Carmelo R. Tomas  

Gambierdiscus 601
Michael L. Parsons, Mindy L. Richlen, and Alison Robertson  

Gymnodinium catenatum 605
Allan D. Cembella and Christine J. Band-Schmidt  

Heterosigma akashiwo 613
Carmelo R. Tomas  

Karenia brevis (Davis) Hansen et Moestrup – Florida Red Tide 615
Larry E. Brand  

Ostreopsis 617
Michael L. Parsons, Mindy L. Richlen, and Alison Robertson  

Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder and Pfiesteria shumwayae  Glasgow & Burkholder 621
JoAnn M. Burkholder and Harold G.  Marshall  

Prorocentrum 625
Patricia M. Glibert and JoAnn M.  Burkholder  

Prymnesium parvum (Carter) – “Golden Algae” 629
Daniel L. Roelke and Schonna R. Manning  

Pseudo-nitzschia – seriata group; delicatissima group 633
Raphael Kudela

Takayama 637
Larry E. Brand  

Appendix 1 Websites That Routinely Distribute Bulletins on the Presence of Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) for Public Health 639 

Appendix 2 Stage Agencies Providing Information and Updates on Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms and Water Quality 641 

Appendix 3 List of General Web Resources 645 

Index 647