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Evidence-Based Evolutionary Medicine

Evidence-Based Evolutionary Medicine

John S. Torday, Neil W. Blackstone, Virender K. Rehan

ISBN: 978-1-118-83831-0

Apr 2018, Wiley-Blackwell

248 pages

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A groundbreaking, evidence-based text to the growing field of evolutionary medicine

Evidence-Based Evolutionary Medicine offers a comprehensive review of the burgeoning field of evolutionary medicine and explores vital topics such as evolution, ecology, and aging as they relate to mainstream medicine. The text integrates Darwinian principles and evidence-based medicine in order to offer a clear picture of the underlying principles that reflect how and why organisms have evolved on a cellular level.

The authors—noted authorities in their respective fields—address evolutionary medicine from a developmental cell-molecular perspective. They explore the first principles of physiology that explain the generation of existing tissues, organs, and organ systems. The text offers an understanding of the overall biology as a vertically integrated whole, from unicellular to multicellular organisms. In addition, it addresses clinical diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, both traditional and cell-homeostatic. This groundbreaking text:

• Offers a much-needed, logical, and fundamental approach to biology and medicine
• Provides a clear explanation of complex physiology and pathophysiology
• Integrates topics like evolution, ecology and aging into mainstream medicine, making them more relevant
• Contains the first evidence-based text on evolutionary medicine

Written for medical and graduate students in biology, physiology, anatomy, endocrinology, reproductive biology, medicine, pathology, systems biology, this vital resource offers a unique text of both biology as an integrated whole with universal properties; and of medicine seeing the individual as a whole, not an inventory of parts and diseases.

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Chapter 1: A Brief History of Evolutionary Thinking
1.1 Summary
1.2 Introduction
1.3 Darwin
1.4 Darwin’s Theory
1.5 The Modern Synthesis
1.6 The Darkest Chapter
1.7 Conclusions
1.8 References

Chapter 2: Outlining the Major Transitions in the History of Life
2.1 Summary
2.2 Introduction
2.3 The Major Transitions
2.4 Conclusions
2.5 References

Chapter 3: One central mystery—why did eukaryotes only evolve once?
3.1 Summary
3.2 Introduction
3.3 Conclusions
3.4 References

Chapter 4: A Levels-of-Selection View of Evolutionary Physiology
4.1 Summary
4.2 Conclusions

Chapter 5: The Cell as the smallest Functional Unit of Biology/Physiology
5.1 Summary
5.2 In the Beginning
5.3 The Advent of Multicellularity
5.4 Evolution, Cellular-Style
5.5 The Water–Land Transition and Vertebrate Evolution
5.6 The Cellular Approach to Evolution is Predictive
5.7 We Are Not Just in This Environment, We Are of It
5.8 Bioethics Based on Evolutionary Ontology and Epistemology, Not Descriptive Phenotypes, and Genes
5.9 The Theory of Everything (TOE)
5.10 CODA
5.11 References Cited

Chapter 6: Development of Tissues and Organs
6.1 Summary
6.2 Introduction
6.3 Lung Alveolar Morphogenesis
6.4 Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (PTHrP)
6.5 Stretch-Induced Cell-Cell Interactions
6.6 References Cited

Chapter 7: When Homeostasis Fails
7.1 Summary
7.2 Introduction
7.3 Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma as a Connection to the Evolution of the LIF
7.4 PPARγ, Statins and TOR as Mechanisms for Homeostasis
7.5 Homeostatic Control of What?
7.6 Pleiotropy, the Deus ex Machina (Ghost in the Machine)
7.7 Rubik’s Cube as a Metaphor for Pleiotropic Evolution
7.8 The Lung as the Prototypical Pleiotropic Mechanism
7.9 The Lung as an Interactive Barrier: Homolog of the Plasma Membrane, Skin and Brain
7.10 NKX2.1, Thyroid, Pituitary and Lung Pleiotropy
7.11 The Phylogeny of the Thyroid
7.12 An Evolutionary Vertical Integration of the Phylogeny and Ontogeny of the Thyroid
7.13 A Retrospective Understanding of Evolution
7.14 Denouement
7.15 Conclusions

Chapter 8: Wnt signaling during development
8.1 Summary
8.2 Introduction
8.3 Role of Growth Factors in Alveolar Homeostasis
8.4 The Kidney Glomerulus as a Homolog of the Lung Alveolus
8.5 Pathologic Consequences of Failed Paracrine Signaling
8.6 References

Chapter 9: Integrated Regulation of Homeostasis- vascular, nervous, endocrine, neuroendocrine, autonomic
9.1 Summary
9.2 Introduction
9.3 Water-Land transition as the catalyst for vertebrate evolution
9.4 Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein signaling is key to understanding the evolution of the lung
9.5 The physics of lung evolution
9.6 Functional homology between membrane lipids and oxygenation
9.7 Atmospheric oxygen, physiologic stress, gene duplication and lung evolution
9.8 Duplication of the β adrenergic receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor genes
9.9 Evolution of endothermy/homeothermy as evidence for the effect of stress on vertebrate physiologic evolution
9.10 Hibernation as reverse evolution
9.11 Predictive power of the cellular-molecular approach to evolution
9.12 Conclusion
9.13 References Cited

Chapter 10:  Endogenous and Exogenous Mechanisms for Healing
10.1 Summary
10.2 Introduction
10.3 Endogenous Mechanisms for Healing
10.4 Exogenous Mechanisms for Healing Using Evolutionary Principles
10.5 References Cited

Chapter 11: Systems Biology as Recapitulation of Ontogeny and Phylogeny
11.1 Summary
11.2 Introduction
11.3 A Paradigm Shift in evolution
11.4 Endothermy as ‘Proof of Principle’ for the evolution of Serial Exaptations
11.5 Endothermy Defies Physics, Fostering Migration
11.6 Conclusion
11.7 References Cited

Chapter 12: Terminal Addition as Physiologic Homeostasis and Regeneration, or Evolutionary Medicine
12.1 Summary
12.2 Introduction
12.3 Conflicting Viewpoints
12.4 Terminal Addition as a Perpetual Cellular Link with the Environment
12.5 Terminal Addition as Layered Cell-Cell Signaling
12.6 Epigenetic Impacts and Terminal Addition
12.7 Physiologic Stress, Vascular Shear Stress, Radical Oxygen Species, and Mutation within Constraints= The Mechanism of Terminal Addition
12.8 Homeobox Genes, Co-linearity and Terminal Addition
12.9 The Alveolar Lipofibroblast as Terminal Addition
12.10 The Participation of Glomerular Mesangial Cells
12.11 PTHrP Effects on the Anterior Pituitary, Adrenal Cortex and Adrenal Medulla
12.12 Catecholamines, Lung and Heart Biology
12.13 Oxytocin, Endothermy and the Retina
12.14 Central Nervous System
12.15 Terminal Addition, ‘Reverse Evolution’ and Evolutionary Medicine
12.16 Discussion
12.17 Terminal Addition, the Fundament of Haeckel’s Biogenetic Law
12.18 Somewhere Between Gene and Phenotype Lies the Process of Evolution
12.19 Cnclusion
12.20 References Cited

Chapter 13: Phantom Limbs, Imagination and Epigenetics
13.1 Summary
13.2 Introduction
13.3 Background to Phantom Limb Sensation
13.4 Relevance of Phantom Limb Sensation to Terminal Addition
13.5 Phantom Limb Sensation as Non-Localization
13.6 Limbs and Hearts
13.7 Relationship of Limbs to Bipedalism and the Evolution of Birds and Mammals
13.8 Of Limbs and Consciousness
13.9 Life as Fractals
13.10 Consciousness, the Epitome of the Continuum from Inanimate to Animate
13.11 References Cited

Chapter 14: Man’s Place in the Universe
14.1 Summary
14.2 Introduction
14.3 Anthropomorphisms Subvert the Biologic Imperative to Cooperate
14.4 Euphysiology
14.5 References

Chapter 15: Evolution, Deception and Public Health
15.1 Summary
15.2 Part I. Deception is Deceiving: the exception that proves the rule
15.3 Part II. Resolution of the Ambiguities by Assimilating the Deception
15.4 Part III. Deception and Public Health
15.5 Part IV. Prediction: Bioethics Based on First Principles of Physiology
15.6 References Cited