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Essential Manufacturing

Gordon Mair

ISBN: 978-1-119-06167-0 January 2019 424 Pages

Description

An introduction to the manufacturing industry

Essential Manufacturing provides a comprehensive introduction to the wide breadth of the manufacturing industry.

There is a need for all engineering and business students to understand the importance and context of the manufacturing industry. An engineer should have a well rounded appreciation of all aspects of the industry they work in, including manufacturing. This is evidenced by professional bodies expecting all accredited engineering courses to provide students with a background that allows them to see their own specific discipline in context. Similarly, business students will often find themselves dealing in some way with manufactured products or even be directly involved in manufacturing operations management. This book will cover the full spectrum of the manufacturing industry to provide a holistic appreciation of the topic but with enough detail to be of practical use.

The book begins with an introduction to the manufacturing industry, its history, and some important manufacturing concepts.  The materials used in manufacturing and how they are produced are covered. This is followed by a more detailed description of the more common manufacturing processes, their application, and the types of automation used in the manufacturing industry. Consideration is then given to the important aspects of manufacturing operations management and production planning and control, work study, and manufacturing economics. How to maintain quality in the manufacturing process, including metrology, is examined and this is followed by human factors in manufacturing. Finally, a speculative look at the future of manufacturing is included.

Key features:

  • Takes a self-contained approach.
  • Includes review questions.
  • Suitable as an introduction for more advanced study.
  • Satisfies the requirements of college and first and second year university engineering courses.

The book provides a comprehensive, concise introduction to the manufacturing industry for engineering and management students.

Preface xv

Part I Introduction 1

1 Introduction 3

1.1 Wealth and Prosperity 4

1.2 Manufacturing Industry 5

1.3 Manufacturing as a Stimulant 7

1.4 The Supply Chain 8

1.5 Conclusion 9

Review Questions 10

2 Manufacturing History 11

2.1 Toolmaking Humans 11

2.2 The New Stone Age 12

2.3 The Bronze Age 13

2.4 The Iron Age 14

2.5 The Industrial Revolution 16

2.6 The Twentieth Century 21

2.7 The Twenty-First Century 24

Review Questions 25

3 Typical Manufacturing Industries 27

3.1 Introduction 27

3.2 Aerospace Industry 29

3.3 Automotive Industry 30

3.4 Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering 31

3.5 Electronics and Electronic Products 32

3.6 Household Appliances 32

3.7 Pharmaceutical Industry 33

3.8 Food Processing 33

3.9 Beverage Industry 34

3.10 Clothing Industry 34

3.11 Producer Goods 35

3.12 Materials and Chemicals Production 35

Review Questions 36

4 Designing for Manufacture 37

4.1 Introduction 37

4.2 Computer Aided Design, Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality 37

4.3 Design for X 38

4.4 The Product Life Cycle 39

4.5 The Design Process 40

4.6 Identifying the Market Need 41

4.7 The Product Design Specification 41

4.8 Concept Design 43

4.9 Detail Design 43

4.10 Prototyping 44

4.11 Production 44

4.12 Contributors to the Design 44

4.13 Some Principles of Product Design 45

4.14 Standardisation and Modularisation 46

4.15 A Design for Manufacture Example 47

4.16 Conclusion 50

Review Questions 50

5 Manufacturing Concepts 53

5.1 The Manufacturing System 53

5.2 Lean Manufacturing and Added Value 55

5.3 Integrating the Effort 56

5.4 The Formal Organisation 60

5.5 Types of Manufacture 63

5.6 Types of Manufacturing Equipment 66

Review Questions 67

Part II Manufacturing Materials 69

6 Materials for Manufacture 71

6.1 Introduction 71

6.2 The Structure of Metals 72

6.3 Plastics 79

6.4 Ceramics 82

6.5 Composites 83

6.6 Properties and Testing of Materials 83

6.7 Conclusion 88

Review Questions 88

7 Materials Production 91

7.1 Introduction 91

7.2 Ferrous Metals Production 91

7.3 Non-Ferrous Metals Production 95

7.4 Forms of Material Supply 97

7.5 The Primary Production of Plastics 98

Review Questions 100

Part III Manufacturing Processes 101

8 Casting 103

8.1 Introduction 103

8.2 Ingot Casting 103

8.3 Continuous Casting 104

8.4 Sand Casting 105

8.5 Centrifugal Casting 107

8.6 Shell Moulding 107

8.7 Full Mould Process 108

8.8 Investment Casting 109

8.9 Die Casting 110

8.10 Defects in Castings 112

8.11 Cleaning of Castings 112

8.12 When to Use Casting 113

Review Questions 113

9 Cutting Processes 115

9.1 Introduction 115

9.2 Sawing and Filing 115

9.3 Basic Principles of Machining 116

9.4 Machine Tools 121

9.5 Other Cutting Processes 129

Review Questions 130

10 Deformation Processes 133

10.1 Introduction 133

10.2 Rolling 134

10.3 Forging 136

10.4 Extrusion 138

Review Questions 139

11 Press working 141

Review Questions 145

12 Plastics Processing 147

12.1 Introduction 147

12.2 Extrusion 147

12.3 Blow Moulding 148

12.4 Calendering 149

12.5 Vacuum Forming 149

12.6 The Blown Film Process 150

12.7 Injection Moulding 151

Review Questions 157

13 Additive Manufacturing Processes 159

13.1 Introduction 159

13.2 Advantages of Additive Manufacturing 159

13.3 Disadvantages of Additive Manufacturing 160

13.4 General Types 160

Review Questions 170

14 Miscellaneous Metal working Processes 171

14.1 Electro discharge Machining 171

14.2 Electrochemical Machining 172

14.3 Chemical Machining 172

14.4 Ultrasonic Machining 173

14.5 High Energy Rate Forming 173

14.6 Powdered Metal Processes 174

14.7 Pipe and Tube Manufacture 175

14.8 Metal Finishing Processes 176

Review Questions 178

15 Manufacturing Processes in the Electronics Industry 181

15.1 Introduction 181

15.2 Semiconductor Component Manufacture 182

15.3 Clean Rooms 186

15.4 Printed Circuit Board Manufacture 187

15.5 Conclusion 193

Review Questions 193

16 Assembly and Joining 195

16.1 Introduction 195

16.2 Mechanical Fastening 195

16.3 Soldering 197

16.4 Brazing 198

16.5 Welding 199

16.6 Adhesive Bonding 208

Review Questions 210

17 Material and Process Selection 211

Part IV Manufacturing Automation 215

18 Manufacturing Automation – Introduction 217

18.1 Types of Automation 217

18.2 The Advantages of Automation 218

18.3 Typical Examples of Manufacturing Automation 220

Review Questions 222

19 The Building Blocks of Automated Systems 223

19.1 Cams 223

19.2 Geneva Mechanism 223

19.3 Transfer Systems 224

19.4 Conveyors 225

19.5 Limit Switches 225

19.6 Fluid Power Components 226

19.7 Electric Motors for Actuation 227

19.8 Feedback Devices 229

19.9 The Vibratory Bowl Feeder 231

19.10 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) 232

19.11 Control of Automated Machines 233

Review Questions 234

20 Reprogrammable Automation 235

20.1 Industrial Robots 235

20.2 Reprogrammable Equipment Precision 242

20.3 Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) Machine Tools 243

20.4 Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) 243

20.5 Reprogrammable Automation and Industrial Robot Safety 247

Review Questions 250

21 Machine Vision 253

21.1 Areas of Application of Artificial Vision 253

21.2 Vision System Components 254

21.3 Lighting 259

21.4 Some Further Application Examples 261

21.5 Conclusion 262

Review Questions 262

Part V Manufacturing Operations Management 263

22 Production Planning 265

22.1 Introduction 265

22.2 Plant Location 265

22.3 Plant Layout 267

22.4 Project Planning 270

22.5 Process Planning 275

Review Questions 278

23 Production Control 281

23.1 Introduction 281

23.2 Elements of Production Control 282

23.3 Material Requirements Planning 285

23.4 Manufacturing Resource Planning 288

23.5 Enterprise Resource Planning 289

23.6 Recognising Constraints 290

23.7 Just in Time Manufacture 291

Review Questions 295

24 Work Study 297

24.1 Introduction 297

24.2 Method Study 299

24.3 Work Measurement 306

24.4 Work Study As a Service to Management 309

Review Questions 311

25 Manufacturing Economics 313

25.1 Introduction 313

25.2 Costs for Decision Making 315

25.3 Investment Appraisal 320

25.4 Cost Analysis and Control 323

25.5 Conclusion 325

Review Questions 325

Part VI Maintaining Manufacturing Quality 327

26 Quality Defined – Quality Management and Assurance 329

26.1 Defining Quality 329

26.2 Quality Management 329

26.3 Organisation for Quality 331

26.4 The Cost of Quality 335

26.5 Conclusion 338

Review Questions 339

27 Metrology and Statistical Quality Control 341

27.1 Introduction 341

27.2 Metrology 342

27.3 Factory and Workshop Metrology 345

27.4 Surface Texture and Measurement 347

27.5 Statistical Quality Control (SQC) 349

Review Questions 352

Part VII Human Factors in Manufacturing 355

28 Human Factors in Manufacturing 357

28.1 Introduction 357

28.2 Job Satisfaction 357

28.3 Health and Safety 358

28.4 Ergonomics 364

28.5 Conclusion 374

Review Questions 375

Part VIII Conclusion 377

29 Introduction 379

29.1 Additive Manufacturing 379

29.2 Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) 380

29.3 Immersive Telepresence 381

29.4 Communications Technologies and the IoT 381

29.5 Cloud Computing 382

29.6 Big Data Analytics 383

29.7 Conclusion 383

Appendix A: SI prefixes and multiplication factors 385

Index 387