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Ecology of Freshwaters: Earth's Bloodstream, 5th Edition

Ecology of Freshwaters: Earth's Bloodstream, 5th Edition

Brian R. Moss

ISBN: 978-1-119-23943-7

Apr 2018

560 pages


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The new edition of this established textbook, now with full colour illustration, has been extensively revised and continues to provide a comprehensive, stimulating, readable and authoritative coverage of freshwater habitats, their communities and their functioning, the world over. The work will be of great value to undergraduate and graduate students, fellow researchers and water managers, and the plain language and lack of jargon should make it accessible to anyone interested in the functioning and current state of lakes and rivers.

Having taught and researched over fifty years and six continents, Professor Brian Moss makes here extensive use of his personal experience as well as the huge literature now available on freshwaters. This is the fifth edition of his textbook, which, since the first edition in 1980, has steadily evolved to reflect a rapidly changing science and environment. It places increasing emphasis on the role of people in damaging and managing freshwaters as we move into the Anthropocene epoch and face unprecedented levels of climate and other changes, whilst rejoicing in the fascination of what are left of near pristine freshwater ecosystems.

Professor Moss retired from the University of Liverpool following a career in Africa, the USA and the UK. He was awarded medals by the International Society for Limnology, of which he was President from 2007 to 2013, and The Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management. He was given The Ecology Institute's Excellence in Ecology Prize in 2009 and the book written for that prize, Liberation Ecology, was awarded the British Ecological Society's best ecology book prize in 2013.

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Chapter 1. The world as it was and the world as it is

1.1 Early ecological history

1.2 The more recent past

1.3 Characteristics of freshwater organisms

1.4 Freshwater biodiversity

1.5 A spanner in the works?

1.6 Politics and pollution

1.7 On the nature of textbooks

1.2 Further reading

Chapter 2. Early evolution and diversity of freshwater organisms

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The freshwater biota

2.3 Bacteria

2.4 The variety of bacteria

2.5 Viruses

2.6 Two sorts of cells

2.7 The diversity of microbial eukaryotes

2.8 Algae

2.9 Kingdoms of eukaryotes

2.10 Further Reading

Chapter 3. Diversity continued:  Multicellular organisms in freshwaters

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Osmoregulation

3.3 Reproduction, resting stages and aestivation

3.4 Getting enough oxygen

3.5 Insects

3.6 Big animals, air breathers and swamps

3.7 Dispersal among freshwaters

3.8 Patterns in freshwater diversity

3.9 Fish faunas

3.10 The fish of Lake Victoria

3.11 Overall diversity in freshwaters

3.12 Environmental DNA

3.13 Further reading

Chapter 4. Water: a remarkable unremarkable substance

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The molecular properties of water and their physical consequences

4.3 Melting and evaporation

4.4 How much water is there and where is it?

4.5 Patterns in hydrology

4.6 Bodies of water and their temperatures

4.7 An overview of mixing patterns

4.8 Viscosity of water and fluid dynamics

4.9 Diffusion

4.10 Further reading

Chapter 5. Water as a habitat: some background water chemistry

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Polar and covalent compounds

5.3 The atmosphere

5.4 Carbon dioxide

5.5 Major ions

5.6 The big picture

5.7 Further reading

Chapter 6. Key nutrients, trace elements and organic matter

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Concepts of limiting substances

6.3 Experiments on nutrient limitation

6.4 Nutrient supply and need

6.5 Phosphorus

6.6 Nitrogen

6.7 Pristine concentrations

6.8 Trace elements and silicon

6.9 Organic substances

6.10 Substance budgets and movements

6.11 Sediment-water relationships

6.12 Further reading

Chapter 7. Light thrown upon the waters

7.1 Light

7.2 Effects of the atmosphere

7.3 From above to under the water

7.4 Remote sensing

7.5 Further reading

Chapter 8. Headwater streams and rivers

8.1 Introduction

8.2 General models of stream ecosystems

8.3 The basics of stream flow

8.4 Flow and discharge

8.5 Laminar and turbulent flow

8.6 Particles carried

8.7 The response of stream organisms to shear stress

8.8 Community composition in streams

8.9 Algal and plant communities

8.10 Macroinvertebrates

8.11 Streams in different climates: the polar and alpine zones

8. 12 Invertebrates of kryal streams

8.13 Food webs in cold streams

8.14 Stream systems in the cold temperate zone

8.15 Allochthonous sources of energy

8.16 Stream orders

8. 17 The River Continuum Concept

8.18 Indirectly, wolves are stream animals too

8.19 Scarcity of nutrients

8.20 Warm temperate streams

8.21 Desert streams

8.22 Tropical streams

8.23 Further reading

Chapter 9. Uses, misuses and restoration of headwater streams and rivers

9.1 Traditional use of headwater river systems

9.2 Deforestation

9.3 Acidification

9.4 Eutrophication

9.5 Commercial afforestation

9.6 Settlement

9.7 Engineering impacts

9.8 Alterations of the fish community and introduced species

9.9 Sewage, toxic pollution and their treatment

9.10 Diffuse pollution

9.11 River monitoring

9.12 The Water Framework Directive

9.13 Implementation of the Directive

9.14 Restoration and rehabilitation ecology

9.15 Further reading

Chapter 10. Rich systems: floodplain rivers

10.1 Introduction

10.2 From an erosive river to a depositional one

10.3 Submerged plants

10.4 Growth of submerged plants

10.5 Methods of measuring the primary productivity of submerged plants

10.6 Enclosure methods

10.7 Other methods

10.8 Submerged plants and the river ecosystem

10.9 Further downstream-swamps and floodplains

10.10 Productivity of swamps and floodplain marshes

10.11 Swamp soils and the fate of the high primary production

10.12 Oxygen supply and soil chemistry in swamps

10.13 Emergent plants and flooded soils

10.14 Swamp and marsh animals

10.15 Whitefish and blackfish

10.16 Latitudinal differences in floodplains

10.17 Polar floodplains

10.18 Cold temperate floodplains

10.19 Warm temperate floodplains

10.20 Tropical floodplains

10.21 The Sudd

10.22 Further reading

Chapter 11. Floodplains and human affairs

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Floodplain services

11.3 Floodplain fisheries

11.4 Floodplain swamps and human diseases

11.5 Case studies : The Pongola River

11.6 River and floodplain management and rehabilitation

11.7 Mitigation: Plant bed management in rivers

11.8 Enhancement

11.9 Rehabilitation

11.10 Inter-basin transfers and water needs

11.11 Further reading

Chapter 12. Lakes and other standing waters

12.1 Introduction

12.2 The origins of lake basins

12.3 Lake structure

12.4 The importance of the catchment area

12.5 Lakes as autotrophic or heterotrophic systems

12.6 The continuum of lakes

12.7 Lake history

12.8 Organic remains

12.9 General problems of interpretation of evidence from sediment cores

 12.10 Two ancient lakes

12.11 Younger lakes

12.12 Filling in

12.13 Summing –up

12.14 Further reading

Chapter 13. The communities of shallow standing waters: mires, shallow lakes and the littoral zone

13.1 Introduction

13.2 What determines the nature of mires and littoral zones?

13.3 Temperature

13.4 Nutrients

13.5 Littoral communities in lakes

13.6 The structure of littoral communities

13.7 Periphyton

13.8 Heterotrophs among the plants

13.9 Neuston

13.10 Linkages, risks and insurances among the littoral communities

13.11 Latitude and littorals

13.12 The role of the nekton

13.13 Further reading

Chapter 14. Plankton communities of the pelagic zone

14.1 Kitchens and toilets

14.2 Phytoplankton and sinking

14.3 Photosynthesis and growth of phytoplankton

14.4 Net production and growth

14.5 Nutrient uptake and growth rates of phytoplankton

14.6 Distribution of freshwater phytoplankton

14.7 Washout

14.8 Cyanobacterial blooms

14.9 Heterotrophs in the plankton: viruses and bacteria

14.10 The microbial pathway

14.11 Zooplankton

14.12 Grazing

14.13 Feeding and grazing rates of zooplankton

14.14 Competition and predation among grazers

14.15 Predation on zooplankters by invertebrates

14.16 Fishes in the open water community

14.17 Predation on the zooplankton and fish production

14.18 Avoidance of vertebrate predation by the zooplankton

14.19 Piscivores and piscivory

14.20 Functioning of the open water community

14.21 Polar lakes

14.22 Cold temperate lakes

14.23 Warm temperate lakes

14.24 Very warm lakes in the tropics

14.25 Further reading

Chapter 15. The profundal zone and carbon storage

15.1 The end of the line

15.2 The importance of oxygen

15.3 Profundal communities

15.4 Biology of selected benthic invertebrates

15.5 What the sediment-living detritivores really eat

 15.6 Influence of the open water community on the profundal benthos

15.7 Sediment storage and the global carbon cycle

15.8 Further reading      

Chapter 16. Fisheries in standing waters

16.1 Some general principles

16.2 Some basic fish biology

16.3 Eggs

16.4 Feeding

16.5 Breeding

16.6 Choice of fish for a fishery

16.7 Measurement of fish production

16. 8 Growth measurement

16.9 Fish production and commercial fisheries in lakes

16.10 Changes in fisheries: two case studies

16.11 The East African Great Lakes

16.12 Fish culture

16.13 Stillwater angling

16.14 Amenity culture and the aquarium trade

16.14 Further reading

Chapter 17. The uses, abuses and restoration of standing waters

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Services provided by standing waters

17.3 Domestic water supply, eutrophication and reservoirs

17.4 Eutrophication – nutrient pollution

17.5 Dams and reservoirs

17.6 Fisheries in new lakes

17.7 Effects downstream of the new lake

17.8 New tropical lakes and human populations

17.9 Man-made tropical lakes, the balance of pros and cons

17.10 Amenity and conservation

17.11 The alternative states model

17.12 Ponds

17.13 Restoration approaches for standing waters: symptom treatment

17.14 Treatment of proximate causes: nutrient control

17.15 Present supplies of phosphorus, their relative contributions and how they are related to the algal crop

17.16 Methods available for reducing total phosphorus loads

17.17 In-lake methods

17.18 Complications for phosphorus control - sediment sources

17.19 Nitrogen reduction

17.20 Habitat creation

17.21 Further reading

Chapter 18. Climate change and the future of freshwaters

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Climate change

18.3 Existing effects of freshwaters

18.4 Future effects

18.5 Future effects on freshwaters

18.6 Switches and feedbacks

18.7 Wicked problems

18.8 Mitigation of global warming

18.9 The remedy of ultimate causes

18.10 Rewilding the world

18.11 Reforming governments

18.12 Further reading