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Darknet: Geopolitics and Uses

Darknet: Geopolitics and Uses

Laurent Gayard

ISBN: 978-1-119-52249-2

Apr 2018, Wiley-ISTE

196 pages

$96.99

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This collaborative research project allows for fundamental advances not only in the understanding of the phenomena but also in the development of practical calculation methods that can be used by engineers. This collaborative research project allows for fundamental advances not only in the understanding of the phenomena but also in the development of practical calculation methods that can be used by engineers.

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Preface ix

Introduction xiii

Part 1. New Frontiers And Governance of Digital Space 1

Chapter 1. Fragmentation and Compartmentalization of Virtual Space 3

1.1 The nymph Carna and Internet census 3

1.2 Dimensions of cyberspace 5

1.3 Deep web, darknet and dark web 8

Chapter 2. A Society Of Control And Panopticism 13

2.1 Horizontal panopticism and cyber-narcissism 13

2.2 The neutrality of the network in question 15

2.2.1 How can network neutrality be preserved? 18

2.2.2 A threatened principle 19

2.3 Going toward an Internet 3.0 and a new form of digital civility? 22

2.3.1 Is cyberspace a public space? 22

2.3.2 Tyrannies of privacy 24

Chapter 3. The Internet, A Governance Subject To Controversy 27

3.1 ICANN, an influenced institution 27

3.1.1 Is this the end of US supremacy? 28

3.1.2 The role of the GAC 29

3.2 Cybersecurity, domains and electronic addressing 32

3.2.1 The essential role of WHOIS 34

3.2.2 Domain name extension and migration from IPv4 to IPv6 37

3.3 Who regulates those who are in control? 39

3.3.1 Conflict within ICANN 40

3.3.2 Encrypted networks: a major security issue for ICANN 42

Part 2. Crypto-Anarchism, Cryptography and Hidden Networks 45

Chapter 4. From The Arpanet To The Darknet: When States Lose Cryptographic Warfare 49

4.1 From Minitel to ARPANET 49

4.1.1 Rapid growth 51

4.1.2 The privatization of the Internet 52

4.2 The rise of asymmetric cryptography 53

4.2.1 Steganography 53

4.2.2 Modern cryptographic methods 56

4.2.3 Asymmetric cryptography 57

4.3 “The Crypto Wars are over!” 60

4.3.1 Planetary electronic monitoring 62

4.3.2 “Rendering Big Brother obsolete” 64

4.3.3 Cryptography at the service of hidden networks 68

Chapter 5. From Sneaker Nets To Darknets 71

5.1 Peer to peer: the first darknets 71

5.1.1 P2P against the entertainment industry: David versus Goliath 73

5.1.2 The BitTorrent revolution 77

5.1.3 The emergence of darknets 81

5.2 “Netopias” and darknets: the appearance of parallel networks 84

5.2.1 Cypherpunks and cyberpunk 84

5.2.2 Crypto-anarchism and activism: Peekabooty 88

5.2.3 Freenet 90

5.2.4 It is a small world… 93

5.3 The Tor network 98

5.3.1 The origins of Tor 100

5.3.2 The Tor paradox 103

5.3.3 How Tor works 105

5.3.4 The principle of the .onion address 108

5.3.5 An evolution of Tor uses thanks to Tor2Web? 112

Chapter 6. Geopolitics and Cybersecurity 117

6.1 From “hacktivism” to “cyberwarfare” 117

6.1.1 The first hackers 118

6.1.2 When states engage in cyberwarfare 120

6.1.3 Computer attacks of an unprecedented magnitude 122

6.1.4 The darknet: cybercrime market 124

6.2 Cybercrime, politics and subversion in the “half-world” 126

6.2.1 The “half-world” appeal 130

6.2.2 Fighting crime and Bitcoins: current and future economic and security issues 134

Conclusion 141

Appendices 145

Appendix 1 147

Appendix 2 153

Glossary 157

Bibliography 163

Index 169