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Conceptual Aircraft Design: An Industrial Perspective

Conceptual Aircraft Design: An Industrial Perspective

Ajoy Kumar Kundu, Mark A. Price, David Riordan

ISBN: 978-1-119-50026-1

Dec 2018

1056 pages

$127.99

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Description

Conceptual Aircraft Design: An Industrial Approach is a textbook which provides a comprehensive introduction to aircraft design with emphasis on industrial practice. It includes worked out design examples for several different classes of aircraft, including Learjet 45, Tucano Turboprop Trainer, BAe Hawk and Airbus A320. A chapter on electric aircraft design is included as is a full range of industry standard aircraft sizing analyses.

Conceptual Aircraft Design: An Industrial Approach considers performance substantiation and compliance to certification requirements and market specifications of take-off/landing field lengths, initial climb/high speed cruise, turning capability and payload/range. Military requirements are discussed, covering some aspects of combat. Also covered are operating cost estimation methodology, safety considerations, environmental issues, flight deck layout, avionics and more general aircraft systems.

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Preface i

Acknowledgements iii

Content vii

Symbols and Abbreviations xxvi

The Road Map of the Book xxxiii

0.1 Objectives and aims xxxiii

0.2 The Arrangement xxxiv

0.2.1 Discussion xxxix

0.2.2 Note xxxl

0.3 Suggested Route for the Course xxxl

0.4 Project assignment xli

0.5 Suggestion for the class xlii

References xliii

PART I – Prerequisites

1.0 Introduction 42 pages

1.1 Overview 1

1.2 Brief Historical Background 1

1.3 Aircraft evolution 8

1.4 Current Aircraft Design Status 11

1.5 Future Trends 13

1.6 Forces and Drivers 19

1.7 Airworthiness Requirements 20

1.8 Current Aircraft Performance Analyses Levels 22

1.9 Aircraft Classification 23

1.10 Topics of current research interest related to aircraft design (supersonic/subsonic) 24

1.11 Cost Implication 26

1.12 Classroom learning process 27

1.13 Units and Dimension 31

1.14 Use of semi-empirical relations 31

1.15 The Atmosphere 33

References 42

2.0 Aircraft Familiarity, Aircraft Design Process, Market Study 29 pages

2.1 Overview 43

2.2 Introduction 44

2.3 Aircraft Familiarization 44

2.4 Typical Aircraft Design Process 49

2.5 Market Survey 51

2.6 Four Phases of Aircraft Design 55

2.7 Typical Task Breakdown in Each Phase 58

2.8 Aircraft Specifications for Three Civil Aircraft Case Studies 63

2.9 Military Market 66

2.10 Airworthiness Requirements 68

2.11 Coursework Procedures – Market Survey 70

References 71

3.0 Aerodynamic Fundamentals, Definitions and Aerofoil 50 pages

3.1 Overview 72

3.2 Introduction 72

3.3 Airflow Behavior- laminar and turbulent 74

3.4 Flow past Aerofoil 78

3.5 Generation of Lift 79

3.6 Aircraft Motion, Forces and Moments 80

3.7 Definitions of Aerodynamic Parameters 84

3.8 Aerofoil 85

3.9 Reynolds number and surface condition effect on aerofoil 94

3.10 Centre of Pressure and Aerodynamic Centre 99

3.11 Types of Stall 105

3.12 High Lift Devices 106

3.13 Flow Regimes 109

3.14 Summary 113

3.15 Aerofoil Design and Manufacture 119

3.16 Aircraft Centre of Gravity, Centre of Pressure and Neutral Point 120

References 117

4.0 Wings 53 pages

4.1 Overview 118

4.2 Introduction 118

4.3 Generic Wing Planform Shapes 119

4.4 Wing Positional Configuration 122

4.5 Structural considerations 125

4.6 Wing parameters Definitions 127

4.7 Wing spanwise variation of aerofoil t/c and incidence 129

4.8 Mean Aerodynamic Chord 130

4.9 Wing Aerodynamics 133

4.10 Wing load 141

4.11 Compressibility Effect: Wing Sweep 147

4.12 Transonic Wings 154

4.13 Supersonic Wing 155

4.14 Additional Vortex Lift - Leading edge suction 156

4.15 High lift Devices on Wing - Flaps and Slats 157

4.16 Additional Surfaces on Wing 162

4.17 The Square-Cube Law 163

4.18 Influence of Wing Area and Span on Aerodynamics 164

4.19 Summary of Wing Design 166

References 170

5.0 Bodies - Fuselages, Nacelle Pods, Intakes and the Associated Systems 42 pages

5.1 Overview 171

5.2 Introduction 171

Civil Aircraft

5.3 Fuselage Geometry - Civil Aircraft 174

5.4 Fuselage Closure-Civil Aircraft 175

5.5 Fuselage Fineness Ration (FR) 178

5.6 Fuselage Cross-section Geometry - Civil aircraft 180

5.7 Fuselage Abreast Seating - Civil aircraft 181

5.8 Cabin Seat Layout 183

5.9 Fuselage layout 191

5.10 Fuselage Aerodynamic Considerations 192

5.11 Fuselage Pitching Moment 194

5.12 Nacelle pod - Civil aircraft 199

5.13 Exhaust Nozzles - Civil Aircraft 205

Military Aircraft

5.14 Fuselage Geometry - Military aircraft 206

5.15 Pilot Cockpit/Flight Deck - Military aircraft 208

5.16 Engine Installation - Military Aircraft 209

References 212

6.0 Empennage and other Planar Surfaces 35 pages

6.1 Overview 213

6.2 Introduction 213

6.3 Terminologies and Definitions of Empennage 215

6.4 Empennage Mount and Types 216

6.5 Different kinds of Empennage Design 219

6.6 Empennage Tail-arm 221

6.7 Empennage Aerodynamics 223

6.8 Aircraft Trim tabs on Control Surfaces 237

6.9 Aircraft Control Surfaces and Trim tabs 239

6.10 Empennage Design 243

6.11 Other Planar Surfaces 245

References 247

7.0 Aircraft Statistics, Configuration Choices and layout 37 pages

7.1 Overview 248

7.2 Introduction 249

Civil Aircraft

7.3 Civil Aircraft Mission (Payload-Range) 250

7.4 Civil Subsonic jet Aircraft Statistics (Sizing Parameters – regression analysis) 251

7.5 Internal arrangements of fuselage - civil aircraft 259

7.6 Some interesting aircraft configurations - civil aircraft 264

7.7 Summary of Civil Aircraft Design Choices 266

Military Aircraft

7.8 Military Aircraft: Detailed Classification and Mission Profile 267

7.9 Military Aircraft Mission 274

7.10 Military Aircraft Statistics (regression analysis) 275

7.11 Aircraft Components Geometries (Military) 277

7.12 Miscellaneous comments 283

7.13 Summary of Military Aircraft Design Choices 283

References 284

PART II - Aircraft Design

8.0 Configuring Aircraft - Concept Definition 67 pages

8.1 Overview 285

8.2 Introduction 286

Civil Aircraft

8.3 Prerequisites to initiate Conceptual Design of Civil Aircraft 290

8.4 Fuselage Design 294

8.5 Wing Design 297

8.6 Empennage Design 300

8.7 Nacelle and Pylon Design 304

8.8 Undercarriage 306

8.9 Worked-Out Example: Configuring a Bizjet class Aircraft 306

Military Aircraft

8.10 Prerequisite to initiate Military (Combat/Trainer) Aircraft Design 318

8.11 Fuselage Design (military - Combat/Trainer aircraft) 323

8.12 Wing Design (military - Combat/Trainer aircraft) 324

8.13 Empennage Design (military - Combat/Trainer aircraft) 326

8.14 Engine/Intake/nozzle (military - Combat/Trainer aircraft) 328

8.15 Undercarriage (military - Combat/Trainer aircraft) 330

8.16 Worked-Out Example–Configuring Military Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) 330

8.17 Turboprop Trainer aircraft (TPT) 342

References 351

9.0 Undercarriage 39 pages

9.1 Overview of the Chapter 352

9.2 Introduction 353

9.3 Types of Undercarriage 355

9.4 Undercarriage Layout, Nomenclature and Definition 356

9.5 Undercarriage Nomenclature and Definitions 358

9.6 Undercarriage Retraction and Stowage 359

9.7 Undercarriage Design Driver/Consideration 361

9.8 Tire Friction with Ground: Rolling and Braking Friction Coefficient 363

9.9 Load on Wheels and Shock Absorbers 364

9.10 Energy Absorbed 366

9.11 Equivalent Single Wheel Load (ESWL) 368

9.12 Runway Pavemen 369

9.13 Airfield/Runway Strength and Aircraft Operating Compatibility 370

9.14 Tires 372

9.15 Tire Nomenclature, classification, Loading and selection 375

9.16 Configuring Undercarriage Layout and Positioning 378

9.17 Worked-Out Examples 381

9.18 Discussion and Miscellaneous Considerations 389

References 390

10.0 Aircraft Weight and Centre of Gravity Estimation 45 pages

10.1 Overview of the Chapter and Definitions 391

10.2 Introduction 392

10.3 The Weight Drivers 394

10.4 Aircraft Mass Breakdown 395

10.5 Aircraft CG and Neutral point Positions 396

10.6 Aircraft Component Group 398

10.7 Aircraft Component Mass Estimation 400

Civil Aircraft 403

10.8 Mass Fraction Method – Civil Aircraft 403

10.9 Graphical Method (Civil aircraft) 406

10.10 Semi-empirical Equation Method (Statistical) 408

10.11 Centre of Gravity Determination 415

10.12 Worked Out Example - Bizjet Aircraft 417

Military Aircraft 420

10.13 Mass Fraction Method – Military Aircraft 420

10.14 Graphical Method to Predict Aircraft Component Weight (Military aircraft) 422

10.15 Semi-empirical Equation Method (Statistical) – Military Aircraft 423

10.16 CG Determination – military aircraft 425

10.17 Classroom Example Military AJT/CAS aircraft mass estimation 426

10.18 AJT mass estimation and CG location 428

10.19 Classroom example of turboprop trainer (TPT) 429

10.20 Classroom worked out TPT mass estimation and CG location 432

10.21 Summary of Concept Definition 433

References 434

11.0 Aircraft Drag 51 pages

11.1 Overview of the Chapter and Definitions 435

11.2 Introduction 436

11.3 Parasite Drag Definition 437

11.4 Aircraft Drag Breakdown (subsonic) 438

11.5 Understanding Drag Polar 439

11.6 Aircraft Drag Formulation 442

11.7 Aircraft Drag Estimation Methodology (subsonic) 443

11.8 Minimum Parasite Drag Estimation Methodology 444

11.9 Semi-empirical relations to estimate aircraft component parasite drag 446

11.10 Notes on Excrescence Drag arising out of surface imperfections 454

11.11 The Minimum Parasite Drag 455

11.12 The ΔCDp Estimation 455

11.13 Subsonic Wave Drag 455

11.14 The Total Aircraft Drag 457

11.15 Low Speed Aircraft Drag at Take-off and Landing 457

11.16 Propeller Aircraft Drag 461

11.17 Military Aircraft 461

11.18 Supersonic Drag 462

11.19 Classroom Example – Civil Aircraft 464

11.20 Classroom Example – Subsonic Military Aircraft (AJT) 470

11.21 Classroom Example – Turboprop Trainer (TPT) 472

11.22 Classroom Example – Supersonic Military Aircraft 475

11.23 Drag Comparison 482

11.24 Some Concluding Remark 483

Graphs 483

References 485

12.0 Aircraft Power Plant and integration 33 pages

12.1 Overview of the Chapter 486

12.2 Background 486

12.3 Definitions 490

12.4 Introduction – Air-breathing Aircraft Engine Types 491

12.5 Simplified representation of gas turbine cycle 495

12.6 Formulation/Theory – Isentropic Case 496

12.7 Engine Integration to Aircraft – Installation Effects 501

12.8 Intake Design 505

12.9 Exhaust Nozzle and Thrust Reverser 507

12.10 Propeller 509

12.11 Propeller Theory 512

12.12 Propeller Performance - use of charts - applications 515

References 518

13.0 Aircraft Power Plant Performance 26 pages

13.1 Overview of the Chapter 519

13.2 Introduction 519

13.3 Uninstalled Turbofan Engine - Civil 523

13.4 Installed Engine Performance Data of Matched Engines 529

13.5 Installed Propeller Performance data 532

13.6 Piston Engine 535

13.7 Engine Performance Grid 540

13.8 Some turbofan data (OPR = overall pressure ratio) 543

References 544

14.0 Aircraft Sizing and Engine Matching 23 pages

14.1 Overview of the Chapter 545

14.2 Introduction 546

14.3 Theory 547

14.4 Classroom Example – Civil Aircraft Design 552

14.5 Sizing Analysis – Civil Aircraft 554

14.6 Classroom Example – Military Aircraft Design (AJT) 556

14.7 Sizing Analysis – Military Aircraft (AJT) 560

14.8 Aircraft Sizing Studies and Sensitivity Study 562

14.9 Discussion 564

References 567

15.0 Aircraft Performance 47 pages

15.1 Overview of the Chapter and Definition 568

15.2 Introduction 569

15.3 Take-off Performance 572

15.4 Landing Performance 579

15.5 Climb Performance 581

15.6 Descent Performance 585

15.7 Checking of the Initial Maximum Cruise Speed Capability 586

15.8 Payload-Range Capability - Derivation of Range Equations 586

15.9 Aircraft Performance Substantiation–Classroom Examples (Bizjet) 588

15.10 Aircraft Performance Substantiation - Military advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) 603 597

15.11 Propeller driven aircraft 610 04

15.12 Summarised Discussion of the design 611 05

References 614

16.0 Aircraft Cost Considerations »28 pages

16.1 Overview of the Chapter 615

16.2 Introduction 616

16.3 Aircraft Cost and Operational Cost 619

16.4 Aircraft Costing Methodology – The Rapid Cost Mode 623

16.5 Aircraft Direct Operating Cost (DOC) 633

16.5 Aircraft Performance Management (APM) 639

References 642

PART III - Further Design Considerations

17.0 Aircraft Load 15 pages

17.1 Overview 643

17.2 Introduction 643

17.3 Flight Maneuvers 645

17.4 Aircraft Load 646

17.5 Theory and Definition 647

17.6 Limits – Loads and Speeds 648

17.7 V – n Diagram 649

17.8 Gust Envelope 653

References 657

18.0 Stability Consideration 28 pages

18.1 Overview of the Chapter and Definition 658

18.2 Introduction 658

18.3 Static and Dynamic Stability 659

18.4 Theory 664

18.5 Current Statistical Trends for Horizontal and Vertical Tail Coefficients 669

18.6 Stick Force - Aircraft Control Surfaces and Trim tabs 669

18.7 Inherent Aircraft Motions as Characteristics of Design 671

18.8 Design considerations for stability – Civil Aircraft 676

18.9 Military Aircraft – non-linear effects 679

18.10 Active Control Technology (ACT) – Fly-by-wire (FBW) 680

18.11 Summary of Design considerations for stability 684

References 684

19.0 Materials and Structures »39 pages

19.1 Overview of the Chapter and Definition 686

19.2 Introduction 686

19.3 Function of structure – Loading 688

19.4 Basic Definitions – Structures 691

19.5 From Structure to Material 692

19.6 Basic Definitions – Materials 693

19.7 Material Properties 695

19.8 Considerations with respect to design 695

19.9 Structural Configuration 701

19.10 Materials – General Considerations 706

19.11 Metals 708

19.12 Wood and Fabric 710

19.13 Composite Materials 710

19.14 Structural Configurations 715

19.15 Rules of Thumb & Concept Checks 722

19.16 Finite Element Analysis (FEA)/Finite Element Method (FEM) 725

References 726

20.0 Aircraft Manufacturing Considerations »22 pages

20.1 Overview of the Chapter and Definition 727

20.2 Introduction 729

20.3 Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFM/A) 729

20.4 Manufacturing Practices 730

20.5 Six Sigma Concept 732

20.6 Tolerance Relaxation at the wetted surface 733

20.7 Reliability and Maintainability 736

20.8 Design Considerations 736

20.9 ‘Design for Customer’ (a figure of merit) 739

20.10 Digital Manufacturing Process Managemen6t 743

References 747

21.0 Miscellaneous Design Considerations »48 pages

21.1 Overview of the Chapter 748

21.2 Introduction 749

21.3 History of FAA - the Role of Regulation 750

21.4 Flight Test 753

21.5. Contribution by the ground effect on take-off 755

21.6 Aircraft Environmental Issues 756

21.7 Flying in Adverse Environment 759

21.8 Military Aircraft Flying Hazards 765

21.9 End of Life Disposal 765

22.10 Extended Range Twin Engine Operation (ETOP) 766

21.11 Flight and Human physiology 766

21.12 Some Emerging Scenario 768

References 769

22.0 Systems »35 pages

22.1 Overview of the Chapter 770

22.2 Introduction 770

22.3 Environment issues 771

22.3.1 Noise Emissions 772

22.4 Safety issues 773

22.5 Aircraft Flight Deck (Cockpit) Layout 775

22.6 Aircraft Systems 784

22.7 Description of Systems required to fly in Adverse Environment 795

22.8 Military Aircraft Survivality 798

References 804

23.0 Computational Fluid Dynamics 12 pages

23.1 Overview of the Chapter 805

23.2 Introduction 806

23.3 Current Status 807

23.4 Approach Road to CFD analysis 809

23.5 Some Case Studies 811

23.6 Hierarchy of CFD simulation Methods 812

23.7 Summary of Discussion 814

References 815

24.0 Electric Aircraft 19 pages

23.1 Overview 816

24.2 Introduction 816

24.3 Energy Storage 818

24.4 Prime Mover – Motors 820

24.5 Electric powered aircraft power train 821

24.6 Hybrid Electric Aircraft (HEA) 823

24.7 Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) 825

24.8 Electric Aircraft Related Theory/Analyses 825

24.9 Electric powered aircraft sizing 828

24.10 Discussion 830

24.11 Worked out Example 832

References 834

Appendices (8+8+7+7) »13 pages

Appendix A Conversion 835

Appendix B Standard Atmosphere Table 837

Appendix C Fundamental Equations 839

Appendix D Case Studies 845

Appendix E Aerofoil 853

NACA4412 854

NACA4415 855

NACA23012 856

NACA64-210 857 0

NACA65-410 858

NACA652-415 859

Appendix F Goodyear tire charts 860

Index 862