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Cognition, 10th Edition

Cognition, 10th Edition

Thomas A. Farmer, Margaret W. Matlin

ISBN: 978-1-119-49166-8 January 2019 432 Pages




The study of human cognitive processes provides insight into why we act or react and can help us predict future behaviors. In Cognition, authors Thomas Farmer and Margaret Matlin present an engaging and highly relatable examination of how these processes work, and how they are responsible for the way we perceive and interpret the world around us. Broad in scope without sacrificing depth of detail, this text emphasizes the link between conceptual cognitive psychology and real-world experience; case studies, current trends, and historical perspectives merge to provide a comprehensive understanding of core principles and theories.

This new Tenth Edition has been updated to reflect the latest research, technology, and thinking, with more in-depth coverage of topics rising to prominence in the field’s current knowledge base. Expanded explanations balance classical and contemporary approaches to specific topics, while additional experiments and an emphasis on methodology and experimental design are included to facilitate a greater appreciation of the field’s rigorous research. 

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Preface xv

1 An Introduction to Cognitive Psychology 1

Chapter Introduction 1

What Is Cognitive Psychology? 2

Historical Perspective on the Field 4

Origins of Cognitive Psychology 4

Wilhelm Wundt 4

Early Memory Researchers 5

William James 5

Behaviorism 5

The Gestalt Approach 6

Frederic Bartlett 7

Cognitive Revolution 7

Cognitive Psychology in Present Times 8

Mind Brain and Behavior 9

Cognitive Science 9

Artificial Intelligence 9

Computer Metaphor of the Mind 10

The Connectionist Approach 11

Cognitive Neuroscience 12

Brain Lesions 13

Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan) 13

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 14

Event-Related Potential Technique 14

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) 15

Textbook Overview 15

Chapter Preview 16

Themes in the Book 17

Theme 1: Cognitive processes are active rather than passive 17

Theme 2: Cognitive processes are remarkably efficient and accurate 17

Theme 3: Cognitive processes handle positive information better than negative information 18

Theme 4: Cognitive processes are interrelated with one another; they do not operate in isolation 18

Theme 5: Many cognitive processes rely on both bottom-up and top-down processing 18

How to Use Your Book Effectively 18

Chapter Outline 18

Chapter Introductions 18

Demonstrations 19

Individual Differences Focus 19

Application 20

Section Summaries 20

End of Chapter Review Questions 20

Keywords 20

Keywords List & Glossary 20

Recommended Readings 20

Section Summary Points 21

Chapter Review Questions 21

Keywords 22

Recommended Readings 22

Answer to Demonstration 1.4 22

2 Visual and Auditory Recognition 23

Chapter Introduction 23

Overview of Visual Object Recognition 24

The Visual System 24

Organization in Visual Perception 26

Theories of Visual Object Recognition 27

Feature-Analysis Theory 27

The Recognition-by-Components Theory 29

Top-Down Processing and Visual Object Recognition 30

Bottom-Up versus Top-Down Processing 31

Top-Down Processing and Reading 32

“Smart Mistakes” in Object Recognition 33

Change Blindness 33

Inattentional Blindness 35

Specialized Visual Recognition Processes 36

Neuroscience Research on Face Recognition 36

Applied Research on Face Recognition 37

Speech Perception 39

Characteristics of Speech Perception 40

Word Boundaries 40

Variability in Phoneme Pronunciation 40

Context and Speech Perception 41

Visual Cues as an Aid to Speech Perception 41

Theories of Speech Perception 42

The Special Mechanism Approach 42

The General Mechanism Approaches 43

Section Summary Points 43

Chapter Review Questions 44

Keywords 45

Recommended Readings 45

3 Attention and Consciousness 46

Chapter Introduction 46

Overview of Attention 47

Divided Attention 47

Selective Attention 48

Dichotic Listening 48

The Stroop Effect 49

Visual Search 51

Eye Movements in Reading 53

Overview of Eye Movements in Reading 53

Selective Attention in Reading 54

Neuroscience of Attention 55

The Orienting Attention Network 56

The Executive Attention Network 56

Theories of Attention 57

Early Theories of Attention 57

Feature-Integration Theory 57

Consciousness 59

Thought Suppression 61

Blindsight 61

Section Summary Points 62

Chapter Review Questions 63

Keywords 64

Recommended Readings 64

4 Working Memory 65

Chapter Introduction 65

Classical Research on Short-Term Memory 66

Short-Term Memory Capacity Limits 67

The Brown/Peterson & Peterson Technique 67

Serial Position Effect 68

Semantic Similarity of the Items in Short-Term Memory 69

Atkinson & Shiffrin’s Model of Information Processing 70

The Turn to Working Memory 71

Evidence for Components with Independent Capacities 73

Phonological Loop 74

Neuroscience Research on the Phonological Loop 75

Visuospatial Sketchpad 76

Research on the Visuospatial Sketchpad 76

Neuroscience Research on the Visuospatial Sketchpad 77

Central Executive 77

Characteristics of the Central Executive 77

The Central Executive and Daydreaming 78

Neuroscience Research on the Central Executive 78

Recent Views of the Central Executive 78

Episodic Buffer 79

Applications of Working Memory 80

Working Memory and Academic Performance 80

Working Memory Abilities in Clinical Populations 80

Working Memory and Major Depression 80

Working Memory and ADHD 81

Working memory and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 82

Summary 82

Section Summary Points 82

Chapter Review Questions 83

Keywords 84

Recommended Readings 84

5 Long-Term Memory 85

Chapter Introduction 85

Overview of Long-Term Memory 86

Encoding in Long-Term Memory 87

Levels of Processing 87

Levels of Processing and Memory for General Material 88

Levels of Processing and the Self-Reference Effect 88

Encoding-Specificity Principle 90

Research on Encoding Specificity 90

Levels of Processing and Encoding Specificity 91

Retrieval in Long-Term Memory 92

Explicit Versus Implicit Memory Tasks 92

Anxiety Disorders and Explicit and Implicit Memory Tasks 93

Individuals with Amnesia 94

Autobiographical Memory 95

Schemas and Autobiographical Memory 96

Source Monitoring and Reality Monitoring 96

Flashbulb Memories 97

Eyewitness Testimony 99

Example of Inappropriate Eyewitness Testimony 99

The Post-Event Misinformation Effect 99

Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony 101

The Relationship Between Memory Confidence and Memory Accuracy 101

Special Topics in Long-Term Memory 102

Expertise 102

The Context-Specific Nature of Expertise 102

How Do Experts and Novices Differ? 102

Own-Ethnicity Bias 103

Emotions and Memory 104

The Recovered-Memory/False-Memory Controversy 107

The Two Contrasting Positions in the Controversy 107

The Potential for Memory Errors 108

Arguments for False Memory 108

Arguments for Recovered Memory 109

Both Perspectives Are At Least Partially Correct 109

Section Summary Points 109

Chapter Review Questions 110

Keywords 111

Recommended Readings 111

6 Memory Strategies and Metacognition 112

Chapter Introduction 112

Memory Strategies I: Memory Strategies Informed by Memory Concepts 113

Divided Attention 113

Working Memory 113

Levels of Processing 114

Elaboration 114

Distinctiveness 114

Encoding Specificity 115

Memory Strategies II: Practice and Mnemonics 116

Memory Strategies Emphasizing Practice 116

Distributed Practice Effect 116

Testing Effect 116

Test Anxiety 117

Mnemonics Using Imagery and Organization 118

Imagery 118x

Organization 119

Prospective Memory 121

Comparing Prospective and Retrospective Memory 121

Absentmindedness and Prospective Memory Failures 122

Suggestions for Improving Prospective Memory 122

Metamemory 123

Accuracy of Metamemory 124

Metamemory: Estimating the Accuracy for Total Score Versus the Accuracy for Individual Items 124

Metamemory: Estimating the Score Immediately Versus After a Delay 125

Metamemory About Factors Affecting Memory Accuracy 126

Metamemory and the Regulation of Study Strategies 126

Allocating Time When the Task Is Easy 126

Allocating Time When the Task Is Difficult 127

Conclusions About the Regulation of Study Strategies 127

Tip-of-the-Tongue and Feeling-of-Knowing Effects 127

Tip-of-the-Tongue Effect 127

Feeling of Knowing 129

Metacomprehension 129

Metacomprehension Accuracy 129

Improving Metacomprehension 130

Section Summary Points 131

Chapter Review Questions 132

Keywords 132

Recommended Readings 133

Answer to Demonstration 6.4 133

7 Mental Imagery and Cognitive Maps 134

Chapter Introduction 134

Classical Research on Visual Imagery 135

Overview of Mental Imagery 135

Mental Rotation 136

Subsequent Research on Mental Rotation 138

Cognitive Neuroscience Research on Mental Rotation Tasks 139

The Imagery Debate 139

Visual Imagery and Ambiguous Figures 140

Individual differences in mental imagery 142

Summary 143

Factors That Influence Visual Imagery 143

Distance and Shape Effects on Visual Imagery 143

Visual Imagery and Interference 144

Visual Imagery and Other Vision-Like Processes 145

Gender Comparisons in Spatial Ability 145

Auditory Imagery 146

Auditory Imagery and Pitch 147

Auditory Imagery and Timbre 147

Cognitive Maps 148

Distance and Shape Effects on Cognitive Maps 150

Distance Estimates and Number of Intervening Cities 150

Distance Estimates and Category Membership 150

Distance Estimates and Landmarks 151

Cognitive Maps and Shape 151

Relative Position Effects on Cognitive Maps 152

The Rotation Heuristic 152

The Alignment Heuristic 153

Creating a Cognitive Map 154

The Spatial Framework Model 154

The Situated Cognition Approach 155

Section Summary Points 155

Chapter Review Questions 156

Keywords 157

Recommended Readings 157

8 General Knowledge 158

Chapter Introduction 158

Background and Approaches to Semantic Memory 159

Background Information 159

The Prototype Approach 161

Characteristics of Prototypes 162

Levels of Categorization 163

Conclusions About the Prototype Approach 164

The Exemplar Approach and Semantic Memory 164

Comparing the Prototsype and Exemplar Approaches 166

Network Models of Semantic Memory 167

Anderson’s ACT-R Approach 167

The Parallel Distributed Processing Approach 169

Schemas and Scripts 172

Background on Schemas and Scripts 173

Schemas and Scripts 173

Identifying the Script in Advance 174

Schemas and Memory Selection 174

Schemas and Boundary Extension 176

Schemas and Memory Abstraction 178

The Constructive Approach 178

The Pragmatic Approach 179

The Current Status of Schemas and Memory Abstraction 179

Schemas and Memory Integration 179

The Classic Research on Memory Integration 180

Research About Memory Integration Based on Gender Stereotypes 180

Section Summary Points 184

Chapter Review Questions 184

Keywords 185

Recommended Readings 185

Answer to Demonstration 8.1 186

9 Language I: Introduction to Language and Language Comprehension 187

Chapter Introduction 187

Overview of Psycholinguistics 188

Relevant Terminology and Background on Language 188

Basic Facts About Human Language 189

A Brief History of Psycholinguistics 190

Chomsky’s Approach 190

Reactions to Chomsky’s Theory 191

Psycholinguistic Theories that Emphasize Meaning 191

On-line Sentence Comprehension 192

Negation and the Passive Voice 192

Syntactic Complexity 193

Lexical and Syntactic Ambiguity 195

Lexical Ambiguity 195

Syntactic Ambiguity 195

Good-Enough Processing 197

Brain and Language 198

General Considerations 198

Aphasia 199

Revisiting Broca’s Area 200

Hemispheric Specialization 201

The Mirror System 203

Reading 203

Comparing Written and Spoken Language 204

Reading Words: Theoretical Approaches 205

The Direct-Access Route 205

The Indirect-Access Route 205

Implications for Teaching Reading to Children 206

Discourse Comprehension 207

Forming an Integrated Representation of the Text 208

Drawing Inferences During Reading 209

The Constructionist View of Inferences 209

Factors That Encourage Inferences 210

Higher-Level Inferences 211

Teaching Metacomprehension Skills 211

Section Summary Points 212

Chapter Review Questions 213

Keywords 213

Recommended Readings 213

Answer to Demonstration 9.1 214

10 Language II: Language Production and Bilingualism 215

Chapter Introduction 215

Speaking I: Overview of Production Processes 216

Producing a Word 216

Speech Errors 217

Types of Slip-of-the-Tongue Errors 217

Explanations for Speech Errors 217

Producing a Sentence 218

Producing Discourse 219

Speaking II: Language Production and Naturalistic Communication 219

Using Gestures: Embodied Cognition 219

The Social Context of Language Production 222

Common Ground 222

Directives 224

Framing 224

Language Production and Writing 225

The Role of Working Memory in Writing 225

Planning a Formal Writing Assignment 226

Sentence Generation during Writing 226

The Revision Phase of Writing 227

Bilingualism 227

Background on Bilingualism 228

The Social Context of Bilingualism 229

Advantages (and Minor Disadvantages) of Bilingualism 230

Proficiency and Second Language Acquisition 231

Second Language Proficiency 232

Vocabulary 232

Phonology 232

Grammar 232

Simultaneous Interpreters 234

Section Summary Points 235

Chapter Review Questions 236

Keywords 236

Recommended Readings 237

11 Problem Solving and Creativity 238

Chapter Introduction 238

Understanding the Problem 239

Methods of Representing the Problem 240

Symbols 240

Matrices 241

Diagrams 241

Visual Images 242

Situated and Embodied Cognition Perspectives on Problem Solving 243

Situated Cognition 243

Embodied Cognition 244

Problem-Solving Strategies 244

The Analogy Approach 245

The Structure of the Analogy Approach 245

The Means-Ends Heuristic 246

Research on the Means-Ends Heuristic 246

Computer Simulation 247

The Hill-Climbing Heuristic 247

Factors That Influence Problem Solving 248

Expertise 248

Knowledge Base 248

Memory 248

Problem-Solving Strategies 249

Speed and Accuracy 249

Metacognitive Skills 249

Mental Set 249

Functional Fixedness 250

Gender Stereotypes and Math Problem Solving 251

Research with Asian American Females 251

Potential Explanations 252

Insight versus Noninsight Problems 253

The Nature of Insight 253

Metacognition during Problem Solving 254

Advice about Problem Solving 254

Creativity 255

The Nature of Creativity 255

Motivation and Creativity 256

Section Summary Points 257

Chapter Review Questions 258

Keywords 259

Recommended Readings 259

Answer to Demonstration 11.3 259

Answer to Demonstration 11.5 259

Answer to Demonstration 11.6B 259

Answer to Demonstration 11.7A 260

Answer to Demonstration 11.7B 260

12 Deductive Reasoning and Decision Making 261

Chapter Introduction 261

Deductive Reasoning 262

Overview of Conditional Reasoning 263

Factors That Cause Difficulty in Reasoning 264

Belief-Bias Effect 265

Confirmation Bias 266

The Standard Wason Selection Task 266

Concrete Versions of the Wason Selection Task 267

Applications in Medicine 267

Further Perspectives 267

Decision Making I: Overview of Heuristics 268

Representativeness Heuristic 268

Sample Size and Representativeness 269

Base Rate and Representativeness 270

The Conjunction Fallacy and Representativeness 271

Availability Heuristic 272

Recency and Availability 273

Familiarity and Availability 273

The Recognition Heuristic 274

Illusory Correlation and Availability 274

Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic 275

Research on the Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic 276

Estimating Confidence Intervals 276

Current Status of Heuristics and Decision Making 277

Decision Making II: Applications of Decision Making Research 278

Framing Effect 278

The Wording of a Question and the Framing Effect 279

Overconfidence about Decisions 280

General Studies on Overconfidence 280

Overconfidence about Completing Projects on Time 281

Overconfidence in Political Decision Making 281

Reasons for Overconfidence 282

Hindsight Bias 282

Explanations for the Hindsight Bias 283

Decision-Making Style and Psychological Well-Being 283

Section Summary Points 284

Chapter Review Questions 285

Keywords 286

Recommended Readings 286

Answer to Demonstration 12.1 286

Answer to Demonstration 12.6 286

13 Cognitive Development throughout the Lifespan 287

Chapter Introduction 287

The Lifespan Development of Memory 288

Memory in Infants 288

Recognizing Mother 289

Conjugate Reinforcement 289

Memory in Children 291

Children’s Working Memory 291

Children’s Long-Term Memory 292

Children’s Memory Strategies 294

Children’s Eyewitness Testimony 295

Children’s Intellectual Abilities and Eyewitness Testimony 297

Memory in Elderly People 297

Working Memory in Elderly People 298

Long-Term Memory in Elderly People 298

Explanations for Age Differences in Memory 300

The Lifespan Development of Metamemory 301

Metamemory in Children 301

Children’s Understanding of How Memory Works 301

Children’s Awareness That Effort Is Necessary 302

Children’s Judgments about Their Memory Performance 302

Children’s Metamemory: The Relationship between Metamemory and Memory Performance 302

Metamemory in Elderly People 304

Beliefs about Memory 304

Memory Monitoring 304

Awareness of Memory Problems 304

The Development of Language 305

Language in Infants 305

Speech Perception during Infancy 305

Language Comprehension during Infancy 306

Language Production during Infancy 307

Adults’ Language to Infants 307

Can Infants Learn Language from a DVD? 308

Language in Children 308

Words 309

Morphology 310

Syntax 310

Pragmatics 311

Section Summary Points 312

Chapter Review Questions 313

Keywords 313

Recommended Readings 314

Glossary 315

References 333

Index 404

New to this Edition:

  • Fully revised and streamlined for improved clarity and readability, with optimized quiz questions and more detailed lecture slides
  • Expanded coverage of experimental methodologies, and 100 new references for further exploration
  • Deeper examination of the speech recognition process, Stroop task research, working memory, implicit aptitude tests, and cognitive language neuroscience
  • New discussions surrounding magnetoencephalography cognitive neuroscientific testing, working memory and Generalized Anxiety Disorder, amnesia and traumatic events, cognitive prediction, and more
  • New and updated coverage of the latest research and trends, including cognitive brain training paradigms, gesture in learning, the bilingual advantage, linguistic abilities in older adults, and factors that modulate the recognition process

Wiley Advantage:

  • Distills complex ideas into straightforward concepts using frequent examples and an engaging, accessible style
  • Emphasizes early themes throughout, providing continuity that enhances comprehension
  • Includes simple demonstrations that increase student engagement without the need for special equipment
  • Demonstrates cognitive processes’ relevance to everyday life, as well as other fields including education, communication, business, medicine, and law
  • Lists recommended reading for further exploration, discussion, and research
  • Features extensive pedagogical devices, including outlines, summaries, pronunciation guides, and definition, that increase understanding and encourage self-study