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Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants, 3rd Edition

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$88.99

Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants, 3rd Edition

John S. Lucas (Editor), Paul C. Southgate (Editor), Craig S. Tucker (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-23082-3 November 2018 Wiley-Blackwell 664 Pages

Description

A clear illustration of the important role of aquaculture in supporting food security, livelihoods, and economic development around the world

This new edition of Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants covers important aspects of the culture of fish, shellfish, and algae in freshwater and marine environments. Subject areas covered include principles of aquaculture, water quality, environmental impacts of aquaculture, desert aquaculture, reproduction, life cycles and growth, genetics and stock improvement, nutrition and feed production, diseases, vaccination, post-harvest technology, economics and marketing, and future developments of aquaculture. Separate chapters also cover the culture of algae, carps, salmonids, tilapias, catfish, marine and brackish fishes, soft-shelled turtles, barramundi, marine shrimp, mitten crabs, and other decapod crustaceans, bivalves, gastropods, and ornamental species. This edition also provides greater coverage of aquaculture in China, reflecting the country’s importance in the global scene. 

Providing core scientific and commercially useful information, and written by 35 eminent international authors, this expanded and fully updated Third Edition of Aquaculture is essential reading for all students and professionals studying and working in aquaculture. Fish farmers, hatchery managers, and those in aquaculture support and supply industries, such as feed manufacturing, will find an abundance of commercially useful information within this important and now established book.

  • Describes the multitude of developments that have occurred within the aquaculture field over the last 15 years
  • Includes a major revision of production statistics and trends, discussion of technical developments, and revised and extended coverage provided by broader international authorship
  • Brings together 35 internationally recognized contributors, including a number of new contributors

Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants, Third Edition is a recommended text for students of the subject and a concise reference for those working in or entering into the industry.

List of Contributors xiii

Preface to the Third Edition xv

Preface to the Second Edition xvii

Preface to the First Edition xix

Acknowledgments xxi

1 Introduction 1
John S. Lucas

1.1 What is and What isn’t Aquaculture? 1

1.2 Origins of Aquaculture and Agriculture 2

1.3 Aquaculture and Capture Fisheries Production 4

1.4 The Efficiency of Aquaculture for Food Production 7

1.5 Has There Been a ‘Blue’ Revolution? 9

1.6 The Big Producers 10

1.7 China 12

1.8 Issues for Developed Countries 13

1.9 An Allegory 14

1.10 Diversity of Aquaculture 15

1.11 Fishery Stock Enhancement and Restoration 15

1.12 Summary 16

References 17

2 Principles of Aquaculture 19
Paul C. Southgate and John S. Lucas

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Intensity of Aquaculture 19

2.3 Polyculture 23

2.4 Integrated Agri‐Aquaculture Systems 24

2.5 Static, Open, Semi‐Closed and Recirculating (Closed) Systems 25

2.6 Selecting a New Species for Farming 28

2.7 Developing a New Farm or a New Farmed Species 31

2.8 Case Studies 33

2.9 Summary 38

References 39

3 Aquaculture Systems Design 41
Igor Pirozzi, Paul C. Southgate and John S. Lucas

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Site Selection and Development 41

3.3 Aquaculture Systems 43

3.4 Plumbing and Pumps 55

3.5 Hatchery Systems 59

3.6 Summary 61

References 61

4 Water Quality 63
Claude E. Boyd and Craig S. Tucker

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 Water Quality Variables 63

4.3 Effects of Water Quality on Aquatic Animals 73

4.4 Pond Water‐Quality Management 78

4.5 Effluents 89

4.6 Summary 91

References 92

5 Resource Use and the Environment 93
Claude E. Boyd, Aaron A. McNevin and Craig S. Tucker

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 An Overview of Resource Use and Environmental Issues 94

5.3 Land Use 97

5.4 Water Use 99

5.5 Energy Use 101

5.6 Feed‐Fish Use 102

5.7 Chemicals 105

5.8 Water Pollution 107

5.9 Best Management Practices 109

5.10 Environmental Advocacy in Aquaculture 111

5.11 Summary 112

References 112

6 Reproduction, Life Cycles and Growth 113
John S. Lucas and Paul C. Southgate

6.1 Introduction 113

6.2 Reproductive Physiology 113

6.3 Life Cycles 116

6.4 Growth 120

6.5 Summary 124

References 125

7 Genetics 127
Rex Dunham

7.1 Introduction 127

7.2 Basic Genetics 128

7.3 Epigenetics 130

7.4 Domestication and Strain Evaluation 130

7.5 Selection 131

7.6 Inbreeding and Maintenance of Genetic Quality 136

7.7 Crossbreeding and Hybridisation 136

7.8 Chromosomal Techniques 140

7.9 Xenogenesis 146

7.10 Genetic Engineering 146

7.11 Gene Editing 151

7.12 Combining Genetic Enhancement Programs 152

7.13 Genotype‐ environment Interactions 152

7.14 Future Developments 153

7.15 Summary 154

References 154

8 Nutrition and Feeds 157
Lou D’Abramo

8.1 Introduction 157

8.2 Energy Consumption and Partitioning (Bioenergetics) 158

8.3 The Relationship between Growth and Food Consumption 159

8.4 Requirements and Metabolic Functions of Nutrients 160

8.5 Digestion and Assimilation of Food 170

8.6 Formulation, Manufacture and Digestibility of Feeds 171

8.7 Nutrition Management Strategies 178

8.8 Feed Management 180

8.9 Emerging Research Areas 181

8.10 Summary 181

References 182

9 Hatchery and Larval Foods 183
Paul C. Southgate

9.1 Introduction 183

9.2 Foods for Hatchery Culture Systems 183

9.3 Feeding Strategy for Larval Culture 196

9.4 Compound Hatchery Feeds 196

9.5 Development of Microdiets for Fish Larvae 197

9.6 Harvesting Natural Plankton 199

9.7 Pond Fertilisation as a Food Source for Aquaculture 199

9.8 Summary 200

References 201

10 Disease Principles 203
Leigh Owens

10.1 Introduction to Disease 203

10.2 General Principles of Infectious Diseases in Aquaculture 203

10.3 The Philosophy of Disease Control 205

10.4 Generalised Disease Management Techniques 206

10.5 Major Diseases 208

10.6 Summary 216

References 216

11 Pathogens and Parasites 217
Kate S. Hutson and Kenneth D. Cain

11.1 Introduction 217

11.2 Viruses 218

11.3 Bacteria 222

11.4 Fungi 229

11.5 Protozoans 230

11.6 Myxozoans 234

11.7 Platyhelminths 235

11.8 Nematodes 239

11.9 Acanthocephalans 240

11.10 Leeches 240

11.11 Crustaceans 241

11.12 Fishborne Zoonotic Agents and Aquaculture 244

11.13 Aquaponics 245

11.14 Summary 246

References 246

12 Prevention of Disease by Vaccination 249
Andrew Barnes

12.1 Introduction 249

12.2 A Beginner’s Guide to Fish Immunology 250

12.3 Vaccinating Fishes 260

12.4 Types of Vaccine 260

12.5 Routes of Delivery 263

12.6 Adjuvants 266

12.7 Vaccination in Practice 266

12.8 Research and Development Track for Commercial Fish Vaccines 267

12.9 Future Trends: Vaccination in the Age of Genomics 269

12.10 Conclusions 269

12.11 Summary 270

References 270

13 Post‐harvest Technology and Processing 273
Allan Bremner

13.1 Introduction 273

13.2 Basic Characteristics 274

13.3 Safety and Health 274

13.4 Nutritional Aspects 275

13.5 The Balance between Safety and Nutrition 276

13.6 Aquaculture and Fisheries Products 276

13.7 Harvesting 276

13.8 Live Transport 276

13.9 Muscle Structure: Rigor and Texture 278

13.10 Stunning and Post‐Mortem Processing 280

13.11 Effects of Feed on the Product 283

13.12 Specialised Niche Market Products 284

13.13 Flavours and Taints 284

13.14 Texture 285

13.15 Concepts: Quality, Freshness, Shelf Life and Quality Index 285

13.16 Microbiology, Specific Spoilage Organism (SSO) and Other Spoilage Processes 287

13.17 Freezing and Frozen Storage 288

13.18 Packaging 290

13.19 Quality Control, Quality Assurance, Haccp and Risk Assessment 293

13.20 Traceability, Identification and Origin 294

13.21 Canning 295

13.22 Smoking 295

13.23 Summary 296

References 296

14 Economics 299
Clem Tisdell

14.1 Introduction 299

14.2 Profitability from a Business Viewpoint (Farm Models) 300

14.3 Markets and Marketing 302

14.4 Economies of Scale and Similar Factors 306Contents ix

14.5 Allowing for and Coping with Business Risk and Uncertainty 308

14.6 Economic Assessment from a Social Standpoint 310

14.7 Summary 312

References 312

15 Seaweed and Microalgae 313
Seaweed: Nicholas A. Paul and Microalgae: Michael Borowitzka

15.1 General Introduction 313

15.2 Seaweeds 313

15.3 Microalgae 327

15.4 Summary 335

References 336

16 Carps 339
Sena De Silva and Qidong Wang

16.1 Introduction 339

16.2 Biology of the Important Carps in Aquaculture 341

16.3 Artificial Propagation 350

16.4 Nutrition 352

16.5 Culture Practices 353

16.6 Diseases 358

16.7 Genetic Improvement 358

16.8 Culture‐Based Fisheries 359

16.9 Conclusions 360

16.10 Summary 360

References 361

17 Salmonids 363
John Purser

17.1 Introduction 363

17.2 Biology 364

17.3 Freshwater Farming 367

17.4 Marine Farming 376

17.5 Feeds 381

17.6 Grading and Stocking Densities 383

17.7 Maturation, Sex Reversal and Triploidy 384

17.8 Fish Health 386

17.9 Harvesting and Products 387

17.10 Environmental Issues 387

17.11 Summary 388

References 388

18 Tilapias 391
Victor Suresh and Ram C. Bhujel

18.1 Introduction 391

18.2 Family, Species and Genetic Variation 393

18.3 Ecology and Distribution 395

18.4 Sex Determination and Reproduction 396

18.5 Control of Reproduction 397

18.6 Seed Production 399

18.7 Nutrition, Feeds and Feeding 401

18.8 Grow‐ Out Systems 405

18.9 Disease Management 410

18.10 Harvest, Processing and Marketing 412

18.11 Summary 413

References 414

19 Catfishes 415
Craig S. Tucker, Aaron A. McNevin, Les Torrans and Brian Bosworth

19.1 Introduction 415

19.2 Pangasiid Catfishes 415

19.3 Ictalurid Catfishes 421

19.4 Clariid Catfishes 431

19.5 Summary 433

References 434

20 Marine Finfish Aquaculture 437
Wade O. Watanabe, Md Shah Alam, Patrick M. Carroll, Harry V. Daniels and Jeffrey M. Hinshaw

20.1 Introduction 437

20.2 Importance of Marine Fish Aquaculture 437

20.3 Hatcheries 440

20.4 Grow‐ out Systems 444

20.5 Nutrition and Feeds 448

20.6 Marine Fishes in Aquaculture 449

20.7 Milkfish 449

20.8 European Seabass 454

20.9 Gilthead Sea Bream 456

20.10 Yellowtail Amberjack 459

20.11 Red Sea Bream 462

20.12 Cobia 465

20.13 Flatfishes 468

20.14 Sturgeon 477

20.15 Summary 481

References 482

21 Soft‐shelled Turtles 483
Qingjun Shao and John S. Lucas

21.1 Introduction 483

21.2 Biology 483

21.3 Aquaculture Development 485

21.4 Culture Facilities 486

21.5 Culture Stages 488

21.6 Water Quality 490

21.7 Nutrition, Feeding and Feed Formulation 491

21.8 Infectious Diseases 493

21.9 Harvesting and Processing 494

21.10 The Future of Soft‐Shelled Turtle Farming 495

21.11 Summary 496

References 496

22 Shrimps 499
Darryl Jory

22.1 Introduction 499

22.2 Cultured Species 502

22.3 Grow‐Out Systems 503

22.4 Preparation of Ponds 506

22.5 Reproduction and Maturation 508

22.6 Hatchery Design and Larval Culture 510

22.7 Seedstock Quality and Stocking 512

22.8 Production Management and Harvest 513

22.9 Nutrition, Formulated Diets and Feed Management 518

22.10 Emerging Production Technologies and Issues 521

22.11 Responsible Shrimp Farming and the Challenge of Sustainability 524

22.12 Summary 524

References 525

23 Freshwater Decapod Crustaceans 527
Chaoshu Zeng, John S. Lucas and Paul C. Southgate

23.1 Introduction 527

23.2 Farmed Species 529

23.3 The Chinese Mitten Crab 530

23.4 Freshwater Crayfish 536

23.5 Freshwater Prawns 543

23.6 Summary 547

References 548

24 Bivalve Molluscs 549
John S. Lucas

24.1 Introduction 549

24.2 Aspects of Biology 550

24.3 Farmed Bivalves 552

24.4 Phases of Bivalve Aquaculture 555

24.5 Farming Problems 560

24.6 Introductions and Other Environmental Issues 564

24.7 Industry Reviews 565

24.8 The Future of Bivalve Aquaculture 570

24.9 Summary 570

References 571

25 Abalone 573
Peter Cook

25.1 Introduction 573

25.2 Production from Fisheries and Farms 573

25.3 Biology 576

25.4 Culture Techniques 577

25.5 Postlarvae and Juveniles 580

25.6 Grow‐Out Systems 580

25.7 Diseases and Parasites 583

25.8 The World Abalone Market 584

25.9 Summary 584

References 585

26 Aquaculture in the Aquarium Industry 587
Thane A. Militz

26.1 Introduction 587

26.2 The Aquarium Industry 587

26.3 The Need for Aquaculture in the Aquarium Industry 589

26.4 Aquaculture of Tropical Freshwater Organisms 593

26.5 Aquaculture of Tropical Marine Organisms 601

26.6 Sustainable Development 612

26.7 The Future of Aquaculture in the Aquarium Industry 614

26.8 Summary 614

References 615

27 The Future of Aquaculture 617
John Hargreaves, Randall Brummett and Craig S. Tucker

27.1 Introduction 617

27.2 Drivers of Future Demand and Supply 619

27.3 Responding to the Challenges of the Future 625

27.4 Summary 635

References 636

Index 637