Alginate is a hydrophilic, biocompatible, biodegradable, and relatively economical polymer generally found in marine brown algae. The modification in the alginate molecule after polymerization has shown strong potential in biomedical, pharmaceutical and biotechnology applications such as wound dressing, drug delivery, dental treatment, in cell culture and tissue engineering. Besides this, alginates have industrial applications too in the paper and food industries as plasticizers and additives. The few books that have been published on alginates focus more on their biology. This current book focuses on the exploration of alginates and their modification, characterization, derivatives, composites, hydrogels as well as the new and emerging applications.